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68wm6 Admin Blood

Administration of blood and blood products

QuestionAnswer
Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration of blood 0.9%
Define Hematocrit A measurement of total blood volume
The Hematacrit for men 42 - 52%
The Hematacrit for women 37 - 47%
The three plasma proteins Albumin, Globulins, Fibrinogen
Plasma proteins that help thicken and maintain blood volume Albumins
Plasma proteins include the antibodies that help protect us from infection Globulins
Plasma protein that functions as a necessary component for blood clotting Fibrinogen
The average blood volume of plasma 2.6L (2600 mL).
The average blood volume of RBCs and platelets 2.4L (2400mL)
Average total blood volume 5L (5000mL).
The average RBC count 4.2 - 6.2 million/mm3
How long do RBCs circulate in the body? 4 months
Normal hemoglobin level in men 14 - 18 g/dL
Normal hemoglobin level in women 12-16 g/dL
Vitamins required for RBC production B12, folic acid, riboflavin (B2), and pryidoxine (B6)
What is the average WBC count? 5,000 - 10,000 mm3 of blood
What WBCs are the primary phagocytic cells involved in acute inflammatory response? Neutrophils
What WBCs release lysozyme, an enzyme that destroys certain bacteria? Neutrophils
What is the normal value of Neutrophils? 60 - 70%
What WBCs play a role in allergic reactions and are effective against certain parasitic worms? Eosinophils
What is the normal value of Eosiniphils? 1-4%
What WBCs are essential to the nonspecific immune response to inflammation because of their role in releasing histamine during tissue damage or invasion? Basophils
What WBCs contain heparin, serotonin, and histamine? Basophils
What is the normal value of Basophils? 0.5 - 1%
List the Granular leukocytes The 'phils', Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
What WBCs are responsible for the Antigen-antibody process (i.e. B-cells and T-cells)? Lymphocytes
What is the normal value of Lymphocytes? 20-40%
What WBCs primary job is Engulf foreign antigens, bacteria and cell debris? Monocytes
What is the second type of WBC to arrive at the scene of an injury Monocytes
What is the normal value of Monocytes? 2 - 6%
What are the smallest cells in the blood? Thrombocytes
What is the life span of thrombocytes? 5-9 days
What is the normal platelet count? 150,000 - 400,000 mm3 of blood
Smallest of the plasma proteins, which account for 60% of protein in weight Albumin
Where is Albumin synthesized? The liver.
Which blood protein acts as an antibody? Gamma globulins
Which blood proteins are essential for the transportation of lipids and fat soluble vitamins? Alpha and Beta Globulins
What is the largest of the plasma proteins? Fibrinogens
What percentage of protein by weight does fibrinogens make up? 4%
Where are fibrinogens synthesized? The liver.
The 'A' blood type contains which antigen and antibodies? RBCs contain Type A antigen, Plasma contains Type B anti-bodies
The 'B' blood type contains which anitgen and antibodies? RBCs contain Type B antigen, Plasma contains Type A anti-bodies
The 'AB' blood type contains which anitgen and antibodies? RBCs contains both type A and B antigen, Plasma contains neither anti-A or B antibodies
Which blood type is the universal recipient? Type AB
The 'O' blood type contains which anitgen and antibodies? RBCs contain neither type A or B antigen, Plasma contains both anti-A and B antibodies
Which blood type is the universal donor? Type O
An examination in which the different kinds of white blood cells are counted and reported as percentages of the total examined or absolute (actual number) is called A differential white blood cell count (DIFF)
What is transfused when whole blood could result in circulatory overload? Packed RBCs
What are some indications for the use of whole blood? Hemorrhage, Hypovolemic shock
What are some indications for the use of fresh whole blood? Multiple transfusions, Exchange transfusions
What blood is transfused in immunosuppressed or hypersensitive PTs? Deglycerolized/ Washed RBCs
What is used for people with clotting deficiencies or who had an overdose of warfarin (Coumadin)? Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)
Define Plasma Exchange (Plasmapheresis) blood drawn off, cleansed, and components returned.
What is Cryoprecipitate fresh-frozen plasma precipitate which contains factors I and VIII.
What is used to treat v0n Willebrand’s disease? Cryoprecipitate.
What is the preferred treatment of hemophilia? Antihemophilic Factor Concentrate.
What is used for blood volume expansion in burns, shock, or protein deficiencies? Fresh Frozen Plasma
What product would you expect the physician to order if the client needed an increase in oxygen carrying capacity? Packed RBCs.
When should the consent form be signed? no more than 72 hours prior to the administration of the transfusion.
What must be verified to ensure that the transfusion products match the recipient’s blood? Blood type and Rh factor.
What is an Autologous Transfusion? Blood drawn from the client weeks before the scheduled procedure.
What is the safest blood for the clients use? Autologous Transfusion (Clients own blood)
Why should the IV tubing for the administration of blood products contain a filter? Prevent infusion of clots.
What kind of tubing does a blood administration set use? Y tubing
How soon must blood be used once its drawn from the blood bank? within 30 minutes.
When preparing a RBC bag, how much saline do you let run into it prior to infusion? 50mL
What is the initial flow rate of a blood transfusion? 2mL/minute for the first 15 minutes.
When do vitals need to be taken on a patient during a blood transfusion? At the end of the 15 minutes initial flow rate, and every 30 minutes after until transfusion is complete.
If a reaction occurs during the transfusion, the blood component may be clamped off and what infused? Normal Saline
What can cause an Acute Hemolytic reaction? Infusion of ABO-incompatible whole blood, RBCs, or components containing 10 mL or more of RBC destruction.
What is the most common reaction to a blood transfusion? Febrile, non-hemoltyic
What causes circulatory overload fluid administration faster than the circulation can accommodate.
What are some clinical manifistations of circulatory overload? Cough. Dyspnea. Pulmonary Congestion (rales). Headache. Hypertension. Tachycardia. Distended neck veins.
What are some clinical manifistations of Sepsis? Rapid onset of chills. High fever. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Marked hypotension. Shock.
How often should vitals be assessed if the patient suffers a transfusion reaction? Every 5 minutes.
What should be obtained and sent to the lab if the patient suffers a transfusion reaction? Remaining blood and tubing set used during the transfusion. Sample of the patient’s blood per agency protocol. Urine sample from the patient.
What is the first thing the LPN should do if a transfusion reaction is suspected? Immediately stop the transfusion.
Created by: Shanejqb