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CCIE R&S - Written - LAN Switching

3 Unicast Flooding Causes Asymmetric Routing, STP Topology Changes, MAC Table Overflow
4 Steps of 802.1D Election Process Elect the root bridge, Select root ports on all non-root bridges, Select designated ports per link, Block all other ports
How is the root bridge elected? All switches begin forwarding Hellos out all ports claiming to be root. If a switch receives a superior Hello, it stops origination and forwards the superiors until only one switch is claiming to be root.
What does the Bridge ID consist of? 2 Byte Priority, 6 Byte Mac Address, VLAN ID mapped to 12 lower order bits of Priority field
What is another name for STP System ID Extension? MAC address reduction
How is priority adjusted to accommodate VLAN ID? In increments of 4096
What is the default priority? 32768
Two ways to set priority? With a macro (primary or secondary) or direct numeric value
How can STP parameters be set for all VLANs? By leaving off the 'VLAN' parameter in the command
What is the default STP Hello Timer? 2 seconds
Each switch updates these 4 fields in the Hello before forwarding. Cost, Bridge ID, Port Priority, Port Number
Every port on the root bridge is a __________. designated port
What are the 3 steps of the STP tiebreaking process on a designated port? Lowest path cost to root bridge, lowest sender Bridge ID, Lowest Port ID
5 STP Port States in order of occurrence Disabled, Block, Listening, Learning, Forwarding
802.1d blocking timer, name and length? max-age, 10 times hello timer
802.1d listening timer name and length? forward delay, 15 seconds
802.1d learning timer name and length forward delay, 15 seconds
In 802.1d, what does a non-root switch do when there is a STP port change? Sends TCN BPDU out its root port every hello timer until acknowledged
In 802.1d, what two actions are taken by a non-root switch receiving a TCN from downstream switch? Responds to downstream switch with the next hello BPDU with the Topology Change Acknowledgment (TCA) bit set, sends TCN BPDU out root port
In 802.1d, what does the root switch do when it receives the TCN BPDU? Sets TC flag on next several hellos that are forwarded to all non-root switches
In 802.1d, what does a non-root switch do when it receives the hell o with the TC flag set? Use forward delay timer to time out CAM entries
In 802.1d, how does port fast speed convergence? It ignores the listening and learning states on the ports
802.1d enhancement for access layer switches UplinkFast
802.1d enhancement for entire topology BackboneFast
In 802.1d when a BackboneFast switch misses a hello, what action will it take? It sends out a Root Link Query (RLQ) BPDU out the port on which the Hello should have arrived
In 802.1d, what is the purpose of a RLQ? To see if the neighboring switch is still receiving Hellos from the root
In 802.1d, if a BackboneFast switch has a direct link failure, how would it respond to the received RLQ? It would respond with a RLQ saying that the root path is lost
IN 802.1d, what does the BackboneFast requesting switch do once it learns of the indirect link failure? Skip max-age timer and converge
What will UplinkFast manipulate for redundancy Bridge priority value to 49,152, and all ports costs to 3,000
What does UplinkFast track? Alternate root ports
What three things does an UplinkFast switch do when a failure occurs? Immediately puts backup link in forwarding state, Sends one multicast frame per local MAC address as the source MAC, clear out its own CAM table
Lowest possible Root Bridge ID 0
Recommended bridge priority for backup root 8192
UplinkFast default priority 49152
Default STP Extended System ID 4107
3 Port States of 802.1w Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding
4 Port Roles of 802.1w Root Port, Designated Port, Alternate Port, Backup Port
802.1w Alternate Port is backup to what? Root Port
802.1w Backup Port is backup to what? Designated port
802.1w replaces simple use of timers with what? Proposal and Agreement process
In 802.1w, what is the 'max-age' equivalent timer? 3 times the hello timer
How are BPDUs different in 802.1w? It carries more information, like standard version of Cisco's 'RLQ' and is also used as a keepalive mechanism
In 802.1w, how are edge ports different from point-to-point ports? TCNs are not sent when edge ports go down
How is the origin of TCNs different in 802.1w than 802.1d? TCNs are originated on the bridge where the change occurs as opposed to just from the root bridge
In 802.1w, what are the three types of links? Point-to-point, shared, and edge
What is the default instance for MST? 0
3 important steps for 802.s configuration Region Name, Revision Number, VLAN to Instance Mappings
In 802.1s, how can all ports be used? Some ports block for one VLAN, while forwarding for another
When connected an MST region to a non-MST region, how are loops prevented? Internal Spanning Tree (IST), entire MST region appears to be one switch
What is true of QoS configurations in an ether-channel setup? It must match on all physical ports, not configured on logical interface
What 8 things can a port-channel interface load-balance on? source and destination mac or ip address, tcp and udp ports
What 5 port items have to be identical for PortChannel? Speed, Duplex, Access VLAN Info, Trunk info, STP cost on all links per switch
How does UDLD detect a uni-directional link? Layer 2 messaging
What are the 2 modes of UDLD and what actions do they take? Aggressive (attempts to reconnect 8 times and err-disables if unsuccessfully), Enable (falls into loop-inconsistent state)
This STP Protection Mechanism prevents against hardware or software failures LoopGuard
This STP Protection Mechanism prevents against fiber optic problems UDLD
This STP Prevention mechanism enforces the STP domain borders and keeps the active topology predictable BPDUGuard
This STP Prevention mechanism enforces the Layer 2 STP topology RootGuard
This STP Prevention mechanism stops BPDUs from being sent on a port and also ignores received BPDUs BPDUFilter
This L2 prevention mechanism monitors traffic by traffic type in 1 second intervals Storm Control
What is the size of ISL encapsulation? 26-byte header, 4-byte CRC trailer
What does ISL use for source address in the header? source address of trunking device
What multicast MAC destinations are used in ISL? 0100.0C00.0000 or 0300.0C00.0000
What is the size of dot1q encapsulation? 4-byte header after the source address
What spanning-tree does 802.1q support on non-Cisco switches? Common Spanning Tree (CST)
When 802.1Q operates with CST, what tunnel MAC address destination is used? 0100.0CCC.CCCD
Which trunk modes don't send DTP frames? off, auto, nonegotiate
Which trunk modes send DTP frames? on, desirable
3 modes of VTP? Server, Client, Transparent
This VTP mode only learns its database from server Client
This VTP mode is the default Server
This VTP mode ignores, but forwards messages Transparent
How will a VTP server or client behave if no VTP domain is configured? It will assume the domain of the first received VTP update
What VLANs can be advertised in VTP versions 1 and 2? Normal-range (1-1005)
What VTP credential can prevent trunk formation? VTP domain
What is the size of the PPP header? 8 bytes
What are the cabling pin matchings for a straight-through cable? 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 6-6
What are the cabling pin matchings for a cross-over cable? 1-3; 2-6; 3-1; 6-2
What pins do PC NIC cards transmit and receive on? Tx 1,2; Rx 3,6
What pins do switch ports transmit and receive on? Tx 3,6; Rx 1,2
What is the assumed duplex for un-negotiated 10M, 100M, and 1000M links? 10M, 100M - half, 1000M - full
What is HDX loopback circuitry? NIC sends Tx signal to the Rx side. If another device is sending, it will detect the overlapping signals
What is 802.3u? FastEthernet (copper and optical)
What is 802.3z? GigabitEthernet over optical
What is 803.ab GigabitEthernet over copper
What can a link that has one side HDX and one side FDX cause? Occasional connection failures due to duplicate packets received on FDX side
This MAC address code is in the first 3 bytes? Organization Unique Identifier (OUI)
What is canonical or little-endian bit significance? In each byte, the left most bit is least significant
In MAC addresses, which bit is the Individual/Group (I/G) bit? Explain the bit settings. Most significant bit of most significant byte; 0 = unicast, 1 = broadcast or multicast
In MAC addresses, which bit is the Universal/Local (U/L) bit? Explain the bit settings. 2nd most significant bit of most significant bye; 0 = vendor assigned, 1 = administratively assigned
What is the ARP EtherType? 0x0806
When does traffic modification take place in Rx SPAN? No traffic modified
When does traffic modification take place in Tx SPAN? Before frames are sent
In SPAN, if the 'encapsulation replicate' command is types, what other frames are forwarded? CDP, STP BPDUs, VTP, DTP, PagP
What are the valid session numbers in SPAN? 1 to 66
What percent of errors are acceptable when running in half-duplex mode? 1 to 2%
What types of errors are expected in Half Duplex mode? FCS, Alignment, Runts, and Collisions
What are the three types of Switch Internal Processing Methods? Store-and-Forward (waits for entire frame), Cut-through (waits for destination address), Fragment-free (waits for first 64 bytes)
Created by: ajballer15