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pivotpointchapter 3#

chapter three pivot-point

anatomy study of the organs & systems of the body
physiology change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance. the study of functions of the body
Gross anatomy study of the structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eyes
Histology study of the structures of the body too small to be seen except through a microscope:also called microscopic anatomy
cells basic unit of living matter (life)
protoplasm gel-like substance found in cells containing water, salt and nutrients obtained from food
nucleus control center of cell activities: the dense core of an atom that contains protons and sometimes neutrons
cytoplasm the production department of the cell, where most of the cells activities take place
cell membrane outer surface of the cell
metabolism chemical process in which cell receive nutrients (food) for cell growth and reproduction
anabolism process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones during metabolism
catabolism process of breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones during metabolism
tissues group of cells of the same kind performing a specific function in the body
epithelial tissue covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs
connective tissue supports, protects and holds the body together
nerve tissue carries messages to and from the brain and coordinates body functions
muscular tissue fibrous tissue that contracts when stimulated by messages carried by the nervous system to produce movement
circulatory system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body
nervous system coordinates and controls the overall operation of the human body
digestive system breaks food down into simpler chemical compounds that can be easily absorbed by cells or if not absorbed, eliminated from the body in waste products
excretory system body system that eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waster products from the body
respiratory system responsible for the intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide
endocrine system body system composed of a group of specialized ductless glands that regulate and control growth, reproduction and health of the body
reproductive system responsible for procreation of others of the same kind
skeletal system physical foundation of the body composed of 206 bones of different shapes and sizes each attached to others at movable or immovable joints
osteology study of bones
long bones found in the arm and leg example: Humerus long bone found in the upper arm. Femur long bone found in the thigh
flat bones plate shaped bones located in the skull
irregular bones found in the wrist, ankle and spinal column (the back)
bone hardes structure of the body with a composition that is 2/3 mineral matter & 1/3 organic matter
skull skeleton of the head that encloses and protects the brain and primary sensory organs
cranium consists of eight bones that form the top sides & back of the head encloses & protects the brain & primary sensory organs
frontal bone bone that extends from the top of the eyes to the head and forms the forehead
parietal bone two bones that form the crown and upper sides of the head
occipital bone protruding bone right below the crest area
temporal bone two bones located on either side of the head directly above the ears and below the parietal bones
sphenoid bones located behind the eyes and nose: connects all the bones of the cranium
ethmoid spongy bone between the eyes that form part of the nasal cavity
Mandible lower jaw and the largest bone of the facial skeleton
Maxillae two bones of the upper jaw
Nasal two bones that join to form the bridge of the nose: nerve that extends to the tip and lower side of the nose
Zygomatic two bones that form the upper cheek and the bottom of the eye socket
Lacrimal smallest two bones of the facial skeleton that form the front part of the inner bottom wall of the eye socket
turbinal two spongy bones that form the sides of the nasal cavity
malar also known as zygomatic two bones that form the upper cheek and the bottom of the eye socket
vomer or nasal system is the bone in the center of the nose that divides the nasal cavity
palatine are the two bones that form the roof of the mouth and the floor of the eye socket
cervical vertebrae the seven bones that form the top part of the spinal column, are often manipulated in extended scalp massage
hyoid bone is the u-shaped bone referred to as "Adams Apple" located in the throat
thorax bony cage composed of the thoracic vertebrae (middle of the spine), sternum and the ribs, which encloses and protects the heart, lungs and other internal organs: also known as the chest
thoracic vertebrae twelve bones that form the middle section of the spinal column
ribs twelve bones of the chest
clavicle bone that forms the area from the throat to the shoulders
scapula large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to the joint where it attaches
humerus largest bone of the upper arm, extends from the elbow to the shoulder
radius small bone on the thumb side of the lower arm or forearm
ulna bone located in the little finger side of the lower arm
carpals eight small bones held together by ligaments to form the wrist or carpus
metacarpals five long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand
phalanges fourteen bones that form the digits or fingers
myology study of the structure, function and diseases of the muscles
striated muscle (voluntary muscle) responds to commands regulated by will
non-striated muscle (involuntary muscle) responds automatically to control various body functions including functions of internal organs
anterior term to describe in front of
posterior term to describe behind or in back of
superioris located above or is larger
inferior located below or is smaller
levator lifts up
depressor draws down or depresses
dilator opens, enlarges or expands
origin is the non-moving (fixed) portion of the muscle attached to bones or other fixed muscle
belly is the term applied to the midsection of the muscle, between the two attached sections
insertion is the portion of the muscle joined to movable attachments: bones, movable muscle or skin
epicranium consists of all of the structures above the cranium, including muscle, skin and aponeuroses
epicranius also known as (occipitofrontalis) is a broad muscle formed by two muscles joined by the aponeurosis tendon
frontalis muscle extends from the forehead to the top of the skull
occipitalis muscle is located at the nape of the neck and draws the scalp back
auricularis anterior muscle is located in front of the ear
auricularis superior muscle is located above the ear
auricularis posterior muscle is located behind the ear
corrugator located between the eyebrows, controls the eyebrows, drawing them in and downward
levator palpebrae superioris located above the eyelids, functions to raise the eyelid
oribicularis oculi circles the eye socket and functions to close the eyelid
procerus located between the eyebrows across the bridge of the nose, draws brows down and wrinkles the area across the bridge of the nose
nasalis one of the four muscles located inside the nose, controls contraction and expansion of the nostrils
posterior dilatator naris one of four muscles located inside the nose, controls contraction and expansion of the nostrils
anterior dilator naris one of the four muscles of the nose: controls contraction and expansion of the nostrils
depressor septi one of the four muscles of the nose, controls contraction and expansion of the nostrils
oris orbicularis circles the mouth and is responsible for contracting, puckering and wrinkling the lips, as in kissing and whistling
Quadratus labii superioris (also known as the levator labii superioris) consists of three parts. It is located above the upper lip, raises both the nostrils and the upper lip, as in expressing distaste.
Quadratus labii inferioris (also known as the Depressor Labii Inferioris),located below the lower lip, pulls the lower lip down or to the side, as in expressing sarcasm
mentalis located at the tip of the chin, pushes the lower lip up and/or wrinkles the chin, as in expressing doubt
risorius located at the corner of the mouth, draws the mouth up and out, as in grinning
caninus (also known as the levator anguli oris),located above the corners of the mouth, raises the angle of the mouth, as in snarling
triangularis (also known as the depressor anguli),located below the corners of the mouth, draws the corners of the mouth down, as in expressing depression
zygomaticus located outside the corners of the mouth, draws the mouth up and back, as in laughing and consists of zygomaticus major minor
buccinator located between the jaws and cheek, is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly, as in blowing
temporalis is located above and in front of the ear and performs both opening and closing the jaw, as in chewing (mastication).
masseter covers the hinge of the jaw and aids in closing the jaw, as in chewing (mastication).
platysma extends from the tip of the chin to the shoulders and chest and depresses the lower jaw and lip, as in expressing sadness
sternocleido mastoideus extends along the side of the neck from the ear to the collarbone and causes the head to move from side to side and up and down, as in nodding "yes" or "no"
trapezius muscles that covers the back of the neck and upper back: involved in movement of the head, neck and scapula (shoulder blade)
latissimus dorsi muscle covering the middle and lower back: rotates the shoulder and controls swinging of the arm
pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles which extend across the front of the chest: these muscles assist in swinging the arms
serratus anterior muscle located under the arm: this muscle helps in lifting the arm and in breathing
deltoid covers the shoulder, this triangular-shaped muscle lifts the arm or turns it
bicep is the primary muscle in the front of the upper arm. This muscle raises the forearm, bends the elbow and turns the palm of the hand down.
tricep extends the length of the upper arm to the forearm controls forward movement of the forearm
supinator runs parallel to the ulna. this muscle turns the palm of the hand up
pronator runs across the front of the lower part of the radius and the ulna. this muscle turns the palm of the hand downward & inward
flexor is located mid-forearm, on the inside of the arm. This muscle bends the wrist & closes the fingers
extensor is located mid-forearm, on the outside of the arm. This muscle bends the wrist & closes the fingers
abductor separates the fingers
adductor draws the fingers together
opponens the opponens muscles are located in the palm (palm view) of the hand and causes the thumb to move toward the fingers, giving the ability to grasp or make a fist
circulatory system or blood-vascular system which is responsible for the circulation of blood includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
lymph-vascular system which is responsible for the circulation of lymph through lymph glands nodes and vessels
arteries are tubular elastic thick walled branching vessels that carry pure blood from the heart through the body
veins are tubular, elastic, thin-walled branching vessels that carry the blood from the capilaries to the heart
capillaries are small vessels that take nurtrients and oxygen from the arteries to the cells & take waste products from the cells to the veins
Pericardium membrane that encases the heart and contracts & relaxes to force blood to move through the circulatory system
right atrium or auricle - upper chamber of the heart
left artium or auricl - upper chamber of the heart
right ventricle lower chamber of the heart
left ventricle lower chamber of the heart
vagus tenth cranial nerve: helps regulate heart beat
blood is the sticky,salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishments & oxygen to all body parts & carrying toxins & waste products to the liver & kidneys to be eliminated
erythrocyte red blood cell or corpuscle: carries oxygen and contains a protein called hemoglobin (RBC)
hemoglobin attracts oxygen molecules through a process known as oxygenation
oxygenation the blood appears bright red in color when oxygen is being carried as the red blood cell moves through the body, it releases oxygen molecules
leukocytes (WBC) white blood cells or white corpuscles. fight bacteria & other foreign substances & increase in number when infection invades the body
thrombocytes blood platelets are responsible for (clotting) the blood starting the process of (coagulation)clotting
plasma is the fluid part of the blood in which red & white blood cells & blood platelets are suspended. Plasma is 90% water.
vericose veins bulge that forms if a vein is stretched and loses its elasticity
Systemic circulation the entire process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body & back to the heart
Pulmonary Circulation phase of circulation that allows blood to travel through the pulmonary artery to the lungs where it is oxygenated & combined with oxygen
common carotid artery arteries located on either side of the neck split into the (ICA) internal carotid artery & (ECA) external carotid artery
internal carotid artery supplies blood to the (ICA)internal carotid artery
External carotid artery (ECA) supplies blood to the skin & muscles of the head
Internal jugular vein (IJV) vein that collects blood from the head, face, and neck
occipital artery supplies blood to the back of the head up to the crown
Posterior Auricular Artery supplies blood to the scalp above & behind the ears
Superficial Temporal artery that supplies the sides & top of the head with blood & branches farther into five smaller arteries that supply more precise locations
External Maxillary artery that supplies blood to the lower portion of the face, including the mouth & nose
Submental Artery supplies blood to the chin and lower lip
Inferior Labial artery that supplies the lower lip with blood
Angular Artery which supplies the sides of the nose with blood
Superior Labial which supplies the upper lip and septum with blood
Frontal Artery which supplies the forehead with blood
Parietal Artery which supplies the crown and sides of the head with blood
Middle Temporal which supplies the temples with blood
Transverse Artery which supplies the masseter with blood
Anterior Auricular which supplies the anterior part of the ear with blood
Nervous System coordinates and controls the overall operation of the human body
Created by: arlenebermudez
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