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CCIE R&S - Written

QuestionAnswer
What routing type periodically passes entire routing tables? Distance Vector
What routing type floods updates within the area? Link State
EIGRP uses what type of routing? Hybrid
BGP uses what type of routing? Path Vector
What timer marks a route as unreachable if an updates is not received over so many intervals? Invalidation Timer
This limit is set for Distance Vector routing to prevent 'counting to infinity' Hop Count
When a metric worsens, this timer disallows updates for a delay period Hold-down Timer
Asynchronous updates use this timer to prevent router synchronization Random Delay Timer
Setting the metric to 'unreachable' Route Poisoning
This rule says do no send updates out of the interface on which that update was received Split-Horizon
This protocol doesn't automatically turn off Split-Horizon on frame-relay hub and spoke environments EIGRP
An exception to the split horizon rule to influence sender of route update Poison Reverse
Another name for Summarization Aggregation
What is the purpose of a static route to NULL0 with summary advertisements This is a loop prevention mechanism to drop packets that are destined to a part of the summary route that the router doesn't know how to reach
Which routing protocols auto-summarize by default? RIP and EIGRP
What are the three main routing decision criteria? Prefix Length, Administrative Distance, Metric
Admin Distance of Directly Connected Route? 0
Admin Distance of Static Route? 1
Admin Distance of EIGRP Summary Route? 5
Admin Distance of External BGP Route? 20
Admin Distance of Internal EIGRP Route? 90
Admin Distance of IGRP Route? 100
Admin Distance of OSPF Route? 110
Admin Distance of IS-IS Route? 115
Admin Distance of RIP Route? 120
Admin Distance of ODR Route? 160
Admin Distance of External EIGRP Route? 170
Admin Distance of Internal BGP Route? 200
Admin Distance of Unknown Route? 255
A copy of the routing table is cached in memory inside this structure Forwarding Information Base (FIB)
A copy of the mac address-table is cached in memory inside this structure Adjacency Table
Negative effect of redistribution Information is lost
Where is redistribution performed? On border routers running more than one routing protocol
When an area is a path between two other routing domains, it is also know as a ____________ . Transit Routing Domain
These routing domains don't carry transit packets Stub
Routing instability due to 'feedback' causes __________. Routing Loops
Three ways to troubleshoot routing loops Admin Distance, Route Filtering, and More Careful Redistribution
What is the 'Split-Horizon' rule with redistribution? Never redistribute a prefix into a domain and then accept the same prefix from another domain
3 Unicast Flooding Causes Asymmetric Routing, STP Topology Changes, MAC Table Overflow
4 Steps of 802.1D Election Process Elect the root bridge, Select root ports on all non-root bridges, Select designated ports per link, Block all other ports
How is the root bridge elected? Switches examine Bridge ID, lowest value wins
What does the Bridge ID consist of? 2 Byte Priority, 6 Byte Mac Address, VLAN ID mapped to 12 lower order bits of Priority field
How is priority adjusted to accommodate VLAN ID? In increments of 4096
What is the default priority? 32768
Two ways to set priority? With a macro (primary or secondary) or direct numeric value
Every port on the root bridge is a __________. designated port
What are the 3 steps of the STP tiebreaking process on a designated port? Lowest path cost to root bridge, lowest sender Bridge ID, Lowest Port ID
4 STP Port States in order of occurrence Block, Listening, Learning, Forwarding
802.1d blocking timer, name and length? max-age,' 20 seconds
802.1d listening timer name and length? forward delay,' 15 seconds
802.1d learning timer name and length forward delay,' 15 seconds
802.1d enhancement for access layer switches UplinkFast
802.1d enhancement for entire topology BackboneFast
What will UplinkFast manipulate for redundancy Bridge priority value
How does BackboneFast benefit convergence? Skips the blocking stage 'max-age'
Lowest possible Root Bridge ID 0
Recommended bridge priority for backup root 8192
UplinkFast default priority 49152
Default STP Extended System ID 4107
3 Port States of 802.1w Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding
4 Port Roles of 802.1w Root Port, Designated Port, Alternate Port, Backup Port
802.1w Alternate Port is backup to what? Root Port
802.1w Backup Port is backup to what? Designated port
802.1w replaces simple use of timers with what? Proposal and Agreement process
How are BPDUs different in 802.1w? It carries more information and is also used as a keepalive mechanism
In 802.1w, how are edge ports different from point-to-point ports? TCNs are not sent when edge ports go down
How is the origin of TCNs different in 802.1w than 802.1d? TCNs are originated on the bridge where the change occurs as opposed to just from the root bridge
What is the default instance for MST? 0
3 important steps for 802.s configuration Region Name, Revision Number, VLAN to Instance Mappings
This STP Protection Mechanism prevents against hardware or software failures LoopGuard
This STP Protection Mechanism prevents against fiber optic problems UDLD
This STP Prevention mechanism enforces the STP domain borders and keeps the active topology predictable BPDUGuard
This STP Prevention mechanism enforces the Layer 2 STP topology RootGuard
This STP Prevention mechanism stops BPDUs from being sent on a port and also ignores received BPDUs BPDUFilter
This L2 prevention mechanism monitors traffic by traffic type in 1 second intervals Storm Control
Which trunk modes don't send DTP frames? off, auto, nonegotiate
Which trunk modes send DTP frames? on, desirable
3 modes of VTP? Server, Client, Transparent
This VTP mode only learns its database from server Client
This VTP mode is the default Server
This VTP mode ignores, but forwards messages Transparent
What percent of errors are acceptable when running in half-duplex mode? 1%
What types of errors are expected in Half Duplex mode? FCS, Alignment, Runts, and Collisions
This OSPF router type has all interfaces in one area Internal Router
This OSPF router type has at least one interface in area 0 Backbone Router
This OSPF router type is connected to at least two different areas Area Border Router (ABR)
This OSPF router type has at least one interface in an area and at least one other interface in another autonomous system Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)
Name of LSA Type 1? Router LSA
Name of LSA Type 2? Network LSA
Name of LSA Type 3? Network Summary LSA
Name of LSA Type 4? ASBR Summary LSA
Name of LSA Type 5? AS External LSA
Name of LSA Type 7? NSSA External LSA
This LSA is generated by every router in the area Router LSA
This LSA is generated by the DR Network LSA
This LSA is generated by ABRs Network Summary LSA
This LSA is generated by ABRs to advertise the ASBR ASBR Summary LSA
This LSA is generate by the ASBR AS External LSA
This LSA is generated by the ASBR in a NSSA area NSSA External LSA
Where are Type 1 LSAs flooded? In the area of origination
Where are Type 2 LSAs flooded? In the area of origination
Where are Type 3 LSAs flooded? Throughout the AS
Where are type 4 LSAs flooded? Throughout the AS
Where are Type 5 LSAs flooded? Throughout the AS
Where are Type 7 LSAs flooded? In the area of origination
What is the OSPF Backbone Area responsible for? Summarization of each area to every other area
3 design rules of OSPF Backbone Area? Must be area 0, must be contiguous, every non-area 0 must touch area 0
Which LSA types are blocked by a stub area? 4 and 5
Which LSA types are blocked by a totally stubby area? 3,4, and 5
Which stub area type doesn't have a default route injected by the ABR? NSSA
This area allows external prefixes from the area ASBR, but restricts other external routes Totally NSSA
OSPF interface command to summarize from one area to another area range
OSPF interface command to summarize from another domain into OSPF summary-address
Name the 7 OSPF network types point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, point-to-multipoint non-broadcast, broadcast, non-broadcast multi-access, virtual-links, loopback
These 2 OSPF network types don't use a DR or BDR, but uses neighbor discovery point-to-point, point-to-multipoint
This OSPF network type doesn't use a DR or BDR, but neighbors have to be manually configured point-to-multipoint non-broadcast
This OSPF network type uses a DR/BDR and uses neighbor discovery broadcast
This OSPF network type uses a DR/BDR , but neighbors have to be manually configured NBMA
This OSPF network advertises its prefix as a host route Loopback
This OSPF feature prevents domain disruptions while processes are restarting Graceful Restart
If there is an incorrect OSPF network type configuration or misconfigured interfaces, what problem would this cause? neighbor list empty
If there is a secondary IP address issue or Layer1/Layer2 problem in OSPF, what could this cause? neighbor list empty
If an ACL is blocking or there is a stub flag mismatch, what problem could this cause in OSPF? neighbor list empty
If there is a Layer3 interface configuration error or area ID mismatch in OSPF, what problem could this cause? neighbor list empty
If there is a timer mismatch or authentication error in OSPF, what problem could this cause? neighbor list empty
If a neighbor statement is misconfigured or unicast doesn't work in the NBMA environment, what OSPF problem could this cause? Stuck in Attempt state
If hellos are being blocked in one direction or the broadcast keyword is missing from the frame-relay map command in OSPF, what problem could this cause? Stuck in INIT state
If multicast is nonfunctional on one side or there is only authentication on one side in OSPF, what problem could this cause? Stuck in INIT state
If all routers have a priority of 0 or there is broken unicast communication in OSPF, what problem could this cause? Stuck in TWO-WAY state
If a neighbor is stuck in EXSTART or there are duplicate Router IDs in OSPF, what problem could this cause? Stuck in TWO-WAY state
What two problems could be presented by a MTU mismatch in OSPF? Stuck in TWO-WAY state or stuck in LOADING
If there is a corrupted link-state request or a MTU mismatch in OSPF, what problem could this cause? Stuck in LOADING state
Which protocol and port number does BGP use? TCP 179
eBGP peers are assumed to be ________________. directly connected
What are the 3 solutions for the 'iBGP Split-Horizon' rule? Route Reflector, Confederations, or Fully Meshed Peers
What two commands are necessary on a confederation border router? bgp confederation identifier and bgp confederation peers
What are the 5 components of the EIGRP metric? Bandwidth, Delay, Load, Reliability, and MTU
The name for the EIGRP cost between the local router and the destination prefix Feasible Distance
The name for the EIGRP cost that the next hop is advertising to the local router Advertised Distance
What the EIGRP feasibility check rule? the AD of the next hop router must be less than the FD of the current successor
What does the EIGRP status code Passive mean? network available
What does the EIGRP status code Active mean? network unavailable
What does the EIGRP status code Update mean? network is being updated
What does the EIGRP status code Query mean? outstanding query
What does the EIGRP status code Reply mean? generating a reply to a query
What does the EIGRP status code SIA mean? convergence problem
What are the two ways to limit the scope EIGRP queries? stub or summarization
What is an EIGRP SIA Query? special query to make sure peer relationship is still valid
What 5 parameters can you match traffic for policy routing? protocol, application, source ip, destination ip, Layer 3 packet length
What 3 parameters can you set for Policy Based Routing? next-hop, output interface, default next-hop
What advantage does PfR have over PBR? It uses performance metrics
What are the two core components of PfR? Master Controller (MC) and Border Router (BR)
What are the 5 phases of PfR Profile, Measure, Apply, Control, and Verify
This PfR phase identifies the traffic classes to control? Profile
In this PfR phase, BRs collect statistics and report them to the MC. Measure
What two ways can PfR measure traffic? Passively or Actively
In this PfR phase, acceptable thresholds of performance are defined. Apply
In this PfR phase, the MC uses BR reported information to identify classes or links that are Out Of Policy Apply
In this PfR phase, the MC controls routing protocol decision. Control
In this PfR phase, the MC ensures the changes have brought the network to In-Policy Verify
Where are the learned traffic classes stored during the PfR profile phase? Monitored Traffic Classes table (MTC)
How does PfR learn prefix traffic classes? NetFlow Top talker feature
How does PfR learn application traffic classes? the 'protocol' command
What 5 states are there in the PfR measure phase? Default, Choose Exit, Hold-down, In-Policy, Out-of-Policy
How is passive measuring done in PfR? NetFlow
How is active measuring down in PfR? IP SLA
How can the apply phase ensure that the network is not unstable as a result of PfR? Timers
How are policies configured in PfR? oer-map
In what 3 ways are routing changes initiated in PfR? a traffic class goes OOP, an exit link goes OOP, or a period timer expires and traffic classes are in 'choose exit' state
In what 3 ways are routing changes actually made in PfR? IGP metric change, BGP attribute change, route injection, or PBR
What does the PfR verify phase rely on? NetFlow
Default HSRP Priority? 100
How is the HSRP Active router selected? Highest priority
What port and type does HSRP use for hellos? UDP, 1985
How to fix HSRP state changes on a multicast stub? Put an access-list on the non-DR
This GLBP router is responsible for responding to ARP requests with virtual MAC address AVG
Which GLBP load-balancing method is the default? round-robin
Which GLBP multicast address is used for hellos? 224.0.0.102
How often are GLBP hellos sent? Every 3 seconds
Which port and type does GLBP use? UDP, 3222
What GLBP router is only responsible for forwarding packets? AVF
How is the Virtual IP address of VRRP different from HSRP? The Virtual IP of the Virtual Router Group is the same as the physical IP of the Virtual Route Master
This NAT address is assigned to a host inside the network Inside Local
This NAT address is a non-private address that represents the inside host Inside Global
This NAT address is the IP address of an outside host as it appears in the inside network Outside Local
This NAT address is the IP address assigned to a host on the outside network Outside Global
Which NAT keyword specifies Port Address Translation (PAT) overload
What is the command to configure a router in NTP client mode? ntp server X.X.X.X
Command to update battery powered hardware clock? ntp update-calendar
Command to configure router as NTP server ntp master [stratum]
What is the default NTP stratum? 8
What does NTP stratum 1 indicate? That the router itself is the time source
What NTP command is used to enable Symmetric Active Mode? ntp peer X.X.X.X
What NTP interface command is used to turn on broadcasts? ntp broadcast version 2
Describe the DHCP 4-way handshake process Host broadcasts discover, server unicasts OFFER, client unicasts REQUEST, server unicasts ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
What are the 3 mandatory steps to configure a DHCP server? Excluded Address, DHCP pool, and Network Address
What are the two ways to create DHCP reserved addresses? With the host command inside the pool or with the origin file command
What is the default version of WCCP? Version 2
What are the two main limitations of WCCP Version 1? It can only do port 80 redirects, and can only have 1 router per Content Engine Cluster
How many routers and Content Engines does WCCP Version 2 support? 32 routers and 32 Content Engines
If Multicast is used for WCCP communication, what are the two prerequisites? All Content Engines in the cluster must be able to communicate with all routers and the routers have to have a TTL of 15 or less
What are the two ways to redirect traffic in WCCP and when are they used? GRE (if router and content engine not on same subnet) or direct Layer2 if they are
How does WCCP handle L2 redirection? By rewriting the MAC address
Which WCCP interface command specifies what traffic to redirect? ip wccp web-cache redirect in (on requester facing interface) or ip wccp web-cache redirect out (on internet facing interface)
Command to globally enable WCCP? ip wccp web-cache
Command to limit WCCP Content Engines permitted to participate? Global or interface command? ip wccp web-cache group-list N (global)
Command to limit WCCP requesters? (global or interface) ip wccp web-cache redirect list N (interface)
Which IP version does WCCP support? IPv4 only
What does the command 'no logging on' do? Forces messages to the console
How to create custom syslog event? event tag WORD
How to specify timeframe for event in Embedded Event Manager? trigger
How to associate different events into one group in Embedded Event Manager? correlate
How to specify router response if trigger is activated? action
What three ways can IP SLA information be accessed? CLI, SNMP, and Syslog
Name the 10 normal IP SLA operation types. UDP Jitter, ICMP Path Jitter, UDP Jitter for VoIP, UDP Echo, ICMP Echo, ICMP path Echo, HTTP, TCP Connect, FTP, DHCP
Name the 2 legacy IP SLA operation types. DLSW+ and Frame Relay
What is the most commonly used IP SLA operation type? UDP Jitter
This IP SLA operation type measures RT delay, OW delay, OW jitter, OW packet loss, and connectivity. UDP Jitter
This IP SLA operation type measures hop by hop jitter, packet loss, and delay. ICMP Path Jitter
This IP SLA operation type measures RT delay, OW delay, OW jitter, OW packet loss. UDP Jitter for VoIP
This IP SLA operation type simulates various codecs and does voice quality scoring. UDP Jitter for VoIP
This IP SLA operation type measures round trip delay for UDP traffic. UDP Echo
This IP SLA operation type measures round trip delay for the full path. ICMP Echo
This IP SLA operation type measures round trip delay and hop by hop round trip delay. ICMP Path Echo
This IP SLA operation type measures round trip time for web page traffic. HTTP
This IP SLA operation type measures the time to establish a session with a target. TCP Connect
This IP SLA operation type measures the round trip time for file transfers. FTP
This IP SLA operation type measures the round trip time for address acquisition. DHCP
This IP SLA operation type measures the peer tunnel response time. DLSW+
This IP SLA operation type measures circuit availability, RT delay, and the frame delivery ratio. Frame Relay
This IP SLA destination system runs on a Cisco router IP SLA Responder
What is the benefit of using an IP SLA Responder? Eliminates processing delays on the source and the target
What protocol is using for IP SLA Responder? IP SLA Control Protocol
IP SLA is a key ingredient in what Cisco feature? OER / PfR
What are the three steps of configuring the QOS MQC? class-map, policy-map, service-policy
What are the two functions of NBAR? protocol analysis and traffic classification for QOS
What is the name of NBAR definitions? PDLMs
What benefit does NBAR have over access-lists? Deep packet inspection to the application layer
Command to enable NBAR monitoring? ip nbar protocol-discovery
Layer 2 QoS marking? How many bits? CoS, 3
Layer 3 QoS markings? How many bits? ToS - IP Precedence (First 3 bits of byte) and DSCP (First 6 bits of byte)
MPLS QoS marking? How many bits? Experimental Bits or Traffic Class, 3
Frame-Relay QoS marking? How many bits? DE, 1
ATM QoS marking? How many bits? CLP, 1
What is the CoS 0 Application? Best Effort (Routine)
What is the CoS 01Application? Medium Priority Data (Priority)
What is the CoS 2 Application? High Priority Data (Immediate)
What is the CoS 3 Application? Call Signaling (Flash)
What is the CoS 4 Application? Video (Flash-override)
What is the CoS 5 Application? Voice Bearer (Critical)
What is the CoS 6 Application? Reserved (Internet)
What is the CoS 7 Application? Reserved (Network)
What are the last two bits of the IP ToS byte used for? Flow Control
What is the DSCP Class Selector PHB used for? Pure backward compatibility with IP Precedence
What is the DSCP Default PHB and bit value? Best effort service (000 000)
What is the DSCP Assured Forwarding PHB and initial bit values? Guaranteed bandwidth services - 001, 010, 011, or 100
Describe the DSCP AF drop probabilities. 010 - Low probability, 100 - Medium probability, 110 - High probability
What is the DSCP EF PHB and bit value? Voice, 101 110
How do the drop probability values differ between AF and EF? In AF, 110 means high probability of drop - In EF, 110 means don't drop
In what three ways can QoS Policy Propagation through BGP classify packets? Access lists, BGP Community lists, and BGP AS Paths
What problem does QoS Priority Queuing introduce? Starvation
What problem does QoS Custom Queuing introduce? Latency for voice
What problem does Weighted Fair Queuing introduce? Can't accommodate bandwidth reservations
What is the default behavior for full queues in CBWFQ? Tail Drop
What is the default processing behavior in each CBWFQ queue? FIFO
What three types of weighting can be used in CBWFQ? Bandwidth, Bandwidth Percent, Remaining Bandwidth Percent
How many types of weighting can you use in one QoS service policy? 1
What percentage of interface bandwidth should not be assigned by CBWFQ? 25%
How is Low Latency Queuing different from CBWFQ? It adds a priority queue
How does Low Latency Queuing stop the priority queue from starving other queues? the prioritized bandwidth is policed
What is QoS Modified Deficit Round Robin? Deficit Round Robin with a priority queue added
What are the two modes of Modified Deficient Round Robin and how do they work? Alternate - there will never be starvation, Strict priority - services the priority queue no matter what
This congestion avoidance technique prevents global synchronization? Random Early Detection (RED)
What is the problem with Random Early Detection (RED)? No way to differentiate what traffic to drop
What is the default Weight Random Early Detection denominator? 10
Explain the WRED min threshold. Specifies at what level to start random drops
Explain the WRED max threshold Specifies at what level to start tail drop
Explain the WRED max drop probability. Specifies what percentage of packets will be dropped (1/N)
Command to enable WRED and in what MQC mode? random-detect, policy configuration mode
What is the default ToS type that WRED uses to determine a traffic profile? IP Precedence
Explain 3 ways that policing and shaping are different? Shaping can only be outbound, Shaping buffers excess traffic, Policing drops or re-marks traffic
What is the policing token formula? CIR = Bc / Tc
What is Tc? timing interval
What is Bc? normal burst size
What are the three states of a Dual-Token, Single Rate Bucket? Conforming, Exceeding, Violating
What two rates are enforced on a Dual-Rate Token Bucket? CIR and PIR
What interfaces are supported for AutoQoS? Physical Serial (HDLC and PPP), Frame-Relay P2P subinterfaces, and ATM P2P subinterfaces
What is the interface speed limit for ATM subinterfaces? less than 768k
What is a requirement of AutoQoS for slow speed links? It must be configured on both sides
What is a requirement of AutoQoS for an ATM PVC? a bit rate has to be set
What 5 signaling protocols is AutoQoS built to identify? H.323, H.225 (Unicast Only), SIP, 'Skinny', and MGCP
"Where does the command ""auto qos voip"" go in a frame-relay environment?" in dlci config mode
What are the two phases of AutoQoS for Enterprise? Discovery Phase, Installation Phase
How is AutoQoS similar to AutoQoS for Enterprise? Same set of restrictions
Command to enable Phase 1 of AutoQoS for Enterprise? auto discovery qos
Command to enable Phase 2 of AutoQoS for Enterprise auto qos
Which frame relay DLCIs are reserved? 0-15 and 1008-1023
How does the router know what LMI type to use? auto-sense by trying each one
What three LMI options are there? Cisco, ANSI, Q.933 - Annex A
What does the LMI status ACTIVE mean? Healthy on each end and data can be transferred
What does the LMI status INACTIVE mean? local connection is healthy, but the remote side is not
What does the LMI status DELETED mean? No LMI, or the DLCI was deleted from the SP Frame-Relay switch
What is the full mesh formula? [n(n-1)]/2
Why was Phase II of DMVPN created? to permit the dynamic creation of spoke-to-spoke tunnels
What 3 technologies is used by DMVPN? IPSec, Multipoint GRE (mGRE), and Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)
This DMVPN technology is used to dynamically register addresses from the spokes Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)
This DMVPN technology is used to transport data and routing information from the hub to multiple (potential) spokes mGRE
Command to create DMVPN mGRE tunnel? tunnel mode gre multipoint
Commands to configure the two phases of IPSec crypto isakmp policy and crypto ipsec transform
Command to create an IPSec profile to crypto ipsec profile
What class and IPv4 range is reserved for multicast? Class D, 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
What is the multicast Local Link Range reserved for? Reserved for routing protocols and other maintenance functions
What is the IPv4 multicast Local Link Range? 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255 (Local Network Control Block)
What is the ipv4 multicast Internet Application Range? Range is 224.0.1.0 - 224.0.1.255 (Internetwork Control Block)
What is GLOP used for? It is used for sourcing multicast content on the internet
How is GLOP assigned? 233.AS_Value.Local_Assignment
What is the range of IPv4 multicast addresses that are administratively scoped for organizations? 239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
What are the top 256 addresses in each Admin Scope reserved for? Scope Relative Address, such as 239.255.255.249 (reserved for DHCPv4)
What is the disadvantage of IGMP Version 1 Hosts have no way of notifying routers when they don't want the multicast stream
What major improvement was made with IGMP Version 2? Hosts now have the ability to send a 'Leave Group' message
What is the benefit to IGMP Version 3 It ads Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
What three messages are used by IGMP hosts? Membership Report, Version 1 Membership Report, Leave Group
What two types of IGMP messages are used by routers? General Query and Group-Specific Query
Command to turn multicast routing on globally ip multicast-routing
Command to enable PIM on an interface ip pim [sparse-mode | dense-mode| sparse-dense-mode]
Command to verify IGMP operation on an interface show ip igmp interface
What is the PIM traffic forwarding concept? Multicast traffic radiates away from a source rather than to a destination
What are the two types of PIM trees? Source-Based Tree and Shared Tree
What does (S, G) mean? Source-Based Tree where 'S' denotes class A,B, or C source IP address and 'G' denotes the multicast group address
What does (*, G) mean? Shared Tree where '*' denotes any source and 'G' denotes multicast group address
What are the three modes of PIM? Dense Mode, Sparse Mode, and Sparse-Dense Mode
How often does PIM DM flood and prune? Every 3 minutes
Which PIM mode has an explicit join approach? PIM Sparse Mode
What is a negative effect of PIM DM? Requires a lot of CPU overhead
What is a negative effect of PIM SM? May have increased delay
What is necessary when multiple multicast routers are connect to a multi-access network? A designated router
How is the multicast Designated Router elected? Highest IP address, Loopback, then other interfaces
What is the function of the multicast Designated Router? To send Join and Prune message to the RP
Name the technology that is a variation on the PIM-SM mode introduced to address issues for groups with a large number of sources Bidirectional PIM
How does Bidirectional PIM forward traffic? with (*,G) mechanisms only
What are the two functions of the multicast designated Forwarder for Bidirectional PIM? To prevent loops and forward appropriate multicast traffic upstream
How is the multicast Bidirectional PIM Designated Forwarder elected? Best Unicast route to the RP
What does reverse path forwarding mean? Moving traffic away from the source, instead of to a destination
How does the RPF Check work? It uses the unicast IP routing table to determine the upstream bath to the source and checks the interface that a multicast packet was received on
What is the primary loop prevention mechanism in multicast? RPF Check
What are the three ways to fix an RPF failure? Which one is the best? Run PIM DM over necessary links, Change the unicast routing table, or Create a Static Multicast Route
Command for creating static multicast route ip mroute (source ip) (network mask) (interface)
What two methods exist for automatically assigning the Rendezvous Point? Auto-RP and Bootstrap Router (BSR or PIM Version 2)
What is the term for routers that want to be RPs? Candidate RPs
What is the flaw with Auto-RP? It uses a dense multicast address to speak to clients to give them the RP (multicast) address (A problem in sparse mode only)
What multicast address is used by Candidate RPs in Auto-RP? 224.0.1.39
What multicast address is used by the mapping agent? 224.0.1.40
Command to declare candidacy for RP? ip pim send-rp-announce
Command to announce Mapping Agent? ip pim send-rp-discovery
What are the two fixes for the SM problem with Auto-RP? Statically assign the RP or use the 'ip pim auto rp listener' on each SM router
What technology allows multiple RPs to load share and provide hot backups for each other? Anycast RP
What protocol does Anycast RP rely on? Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)
What is the range for extended ACLs numbers? 100-199, 2000-2699
What ending keyword is used in an ACL statement to get general information? log
What ending keyword is used in an ACL statement to get detailed information? log input
This type of ACL is compiled and put into a table for faster processing Turbo ACL
What is the function of uPRF? To stop spoofed packets
What is required to run uPRF? CEF
What two actions can be taken on a uPRF offending packet? drop or log
What interface command enables uPRF? ip verify unicast reverse-path
What two uPRF modes are there and what is the difference? Strict mode says the packet has to be on the correct interface, Loose mode says that the router only has to have a route for that specific subnet
What is a limitation of uPRF's visibility? It can't see packets encapsulated inside tunnels
What is IP Source Guard? Protection against spoofing
What is necessary for IP Source Guard to function? DHCP Snooping
How does CBAC work? It watches traffic leave the network and temporarily permits return traffic
Where can you apply the CBAC inspect rule? In the inbound direction of the internal direction or the outbound direction of the external interface
What two benefits do SPs get from using MPLS? BGP free core, offer L2/L3 VPNs to customers
What is the size of an MPLS header? 4 bytes
Describe the makeup of the MPLS header. 20 bit Label, 3 bit EXP, 1 bit BoS, 8 bit TTL
What are MPLS labels bound to? Forwarding Equivalency Class (FEC)
What table does the MPLS router use to switch traffic? LFIB
What MPLS router imposes labels? PE or LER
What MPLS router switches traffic based only on MPLS label? P or LSR
What three major operations to MPLS PE and P routers perform? push, swap, and pop
What is Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)? The next to last SP router performs to pop operation
How does the PE signal that it wants its peer to perform PHP? Advertising an implicit-null label (reserved label 3)
What are the two MPLS label protocols? LDP and TDP
How does MPLS LDP and TDP establish adjacencies? Relies on the IGP
How does MPLS protocols LDP and TDP advertise IGP routes by default? Automatically
What MPLS protocol is typically used with Traffic Engineering and requires manually configured tunnels? RSVP
What protocol, address, and port does TDP use to discover MPLS neighbors? UDP broadcast to port 711
What protocol, address, and port does LDP use to discover MPLS neighbors? UDP multicast to 224.0.0.2, port 646
What TCP ports do TDP and LDP use? TDP - 711, LDP - 646
What are the 3 steps for enabling MPLS protocol TDP? enable CEF, set protocol, enable MPLS on the interface
What command can be used to discover the remote MPLS label protocol? debug ip packet detail
Where is the TCP session sourced from in MPLS TDP and LDP? router-ID interface
Command to modify MPLS LDP router-id? mpls ldp discovery transport-address
How does an MPLS header get It's TTL value? Copied from the IP packet
Command for VRF aware static routes? ip route vrf ō
What is added to a VPNv4 route in MP-BGP to make it globally unique? What is its length? Route Distinguisher (RD), 8 bytes
What BGP community is used to control the importing and exporting of routes? What is its length? route-target, 8 bytes
What mechanisms allows VPNv4 route control on a per prefix basis? import map and export map
What is the format for a route distinguisher or a route-target? ASN:nn or IPv4address:nn
How does a VPNv4 speaker know to accept VPNv4 routes? The route-target has to match a local VRF
How does a MPLS PE exchange IPv4 routes with a CE? VRF aware protocols
What is needed when BGP is not the PE-CE protocol? redistribution
What are the 8 fixed fields of an IPv6 header? Version, Traffic Class, Flow Label, Payload Length, Next Header, Hop Limit, Source Address, Destination Address
What two shortcuts are there in IPv6 Address? Replace fields of successive zeroes with a '::' once, Trim leading zeroes in every field
What three address types exist in IPv6? Unicast, Multicast, Anycast
What are the 4 main address space types in IPv6? global unicast, site local, link local, multicast
What is the range of the first field of Global Unicast addresses in IPv6? 2000 - 3FFF
What value does the first field in the IPv6 site local address have? FEC0
What value does the first field in the IPv6 link local address have? FE80
What value does the first field in the IPv6 multicast address start with? FF
How are modified EUI IPv6 address portion derived? 48 bit MAC address with 7th most significant bit flipped, 'FFFE' inserted in the middle
How is the L2 next hop resolved in IPv6 NMBA networks? Statically
This IPv6 ND message asks for information about a neighbor Neighbor Solicitation (NS)
This IPv6 ND message is used for self-advertisement to other neighbors Neighbor Advertisement (NA)
This IPv6 ND message asks for information about local routers Router Solicitation (RS)
This IPv6 ND message self-advertises as an active router Router Advertisement (RA)
This IPv6 mechanism sends a neighbor solicitation to the solicited node multicast for unique address check Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)
What IPv6 address is used to self-advertise to everyone on the link? FF02::1
Command to resolve a corresponding L2 address to an IPv6 address on a multipoint interface? ipv6 neighbor (ipv6 address) (interface) (mac address)
Command in IPv6 that mimics IPv4 command 'show arp' show ipv6 neighbors
What is the IPv6 replacement for IGMP? Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
What new feature does MLD have that IGMP version 3 did not? explicit tracking of receivers
What is the Embedded Rendezvous Point mechanism in IPv6? The RP address is embedded into the multicast group address
What types of tunnels are available in IPv6 multicast? IPv6 multicast over IPv4 tunnels, IPv6 multicast over IPv6 tunnels
What are three common IPv6 multicast address scopes? 01 - node local, 02 - link local, 05 - site local
What are the two groups of IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels? static and automatic
Which IPv6 tunnel is the allows for multiple protocols to travel over the same tunnel? (static or automatic) GRE, static
Which IPv6 tunnel is good for point-to-point connections, has less overheard, but can't transport CLNS? (static or automatic) IPv6IP, static
Which IPv6 tunnel automatically determines the tunnel endpoint? (static or automatic) 6to4, automatic
Which IPv6 tunnel mode provides automatic host to route and host to host tunneling? (static or automatic) ISATAP, automatic
Command to turn on IPv6 routing? ipv6 unicast-routing
What are the 5 IPv6 routing protocols? RIPng, EIGRPv6, OSPFv3, IS-IS, mBGP
Which IPv6 protocols use a separate process from their IPv4 counterparts? RIPng, EIGRPv6, OSPFv3
How is the initial configuration of EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 different from IPv4? networks are enabled by interface commands, not under the routing process
What is different about EIGRP passive interfaces from IPv4 to IPv6? No interface level command needed
What is a new feature of the EIGRPv6 routing process? It features a 'shutdown' option
What new functionality is added to IPv6 distribute lists command? prefix-lists
Created by: ajballer15