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Hematology

AAB Study Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is the composition of whole blood? Plasma (55%) RBC's (45%) WBC/PLT (1%)
What is pancytopenia? Reduction of all blood cell types including RBC (anemia), WBC (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombopenia).
What is hemostasis and which cell is primarily involved? Hemostasis is also known as clotting. The major cell involved is platelets.
What stain is used to visualize retics? Supravital stain
What portion of a retic is stained? The residual ribosomal RNA
What is the normal range for retics in a normal adult? 0.5 to 1.7%
Roleaux Result of possible multiple myeloma, elevated fibrinogen or globulins in plasma. Looks like a stack of coins.
Which organs are part of the hematopoietic system? The spleen, red marrow, liver, lymphnodes, and thymus.
What can polychromasia indicate? Either that a treatment for anemia is working or that there is increased hemolysis of the RBC's.
Describe polychromasia. Polychromatic cells are also referred to a retics. They are immature blood cells that are released into the blood stream. Usually occurs following acute or chronic hemorrhage, hemolysis, or as a regenerative rbc process.
Microcytes Diameter of rbc is < 6um, MCV < 80 fL, caused by hb synthesis defect or IDA, thalassemia
Macrocytes 9um or larger, MCv > 100 fL, caused by liver disease, post-splenectomy, megaloblastic conditions
What type of RBC's does the Osmotic fragility test for? Spherocytes, they lyse faster than normal RBC's in hypotonic solns
What are common reasons to perform a sed rate? To see if there is an inflammatory process taking place, multiple myeloma, PID, Lupus, RA, kidney disease.
What is the normal reference range for sed rate? 0 to 20 mm/hr
Auer rods are only seen in which cell line?   Myeloloid  
How do you calculate MCV? hct/RBC x 10  
how do you calculate MCH? hgb/rbc x 10  
How do you calculate MCHC?   hgb/hct x 100  
Basophilic stippling can indicate   lead poisoning; congenital dyserythropoetic anemia; thalassemia alpha and beta (among others)  
What is the osmotic fragility test for?   Shows the presence of spherocytes; hereditary spherocytosis, and hemolytic anemias are more fragile (also increased in old blood)  
What is the RBC count, the indices and the typical RBC morphology of thalassemia? increased RBC (erythroid hyperplasia); micro/hypo; target cells, basophilic stippling  
What is the cause of siderocytes/sideroblasts?   Sideroblastic anemia; there is a disturbed or missing enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway; this leads to iron accumulation within mitochondria, which eventually rupture and deposit the iron into the cell  
What condition causes increased Heinz bodies?   Glucose 6 Phosphate deficiencty (G6PD)  
What are Heinz bodies made of? denatured hemoglobin
What is basophillic stippling composed of? RNA and ribosomes
What does Prussian blue stain?   Iron deposits  
What is anemia in sickle cell caused by?   extravascular hemolysis (cells taken out by spleen)  
What happens to the blood in alcoholism? can cause stomatocytes and/or ecchinocytes  
What are four states that can lead to target cells? thalassemia; liver disease; hemoglobin C disorders; splenectomy  
Congenital red cell aplasia is called . . Diamond Blackfan
Congenital aplastic anemia is called . . . Fanconi's anemia
What is G6PD?   glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencty; the most common erythorcyte enzyme disorder  
Fluid portion of blood   1. Plasma- contains fibrinogen; 2. Serum- contains no fibrinogen (used to form clot)
Excess EDTA Shrinkage of RBC's; Decreased hematocrit; Decreased ESR; Degenerated WBC; Increase MCHC; Platelet swell and break up causing an increased count  
in lavender/Purple top test must be performed within how mant hours of collection   2 Hours; After 6 hours RBC's swell and WBC's show vacuolization and pyknotic nucleus (dark RBC nucleus)  
Blue Top Containd Sodium CItrate 9:1; Choice for caogulation studies; Maintains stability of the coagulation factors ( Factor V- Proaccelerin, Factor VIII- Antihemophilic A)   Maintains functional abilities of platelets: ( Used for CBC if platelet clumps in EDT
Blue Top Test plasma within 2 hours of collection otherwise freeze or refrigerate; 9:1 Ratio is critical (no short draws)  
Adjusting anti-coagulant in blue top   Adjust amount of anticaogulant on patients with HCT above 55% ( high HCT means less plasma, less plasma needs less anticoagulant); citrate= (100 -HCT/595 -HCT) x amt of blood  
Green Top Contains heparin; Prevents coagulation by: 1. Interacting with anti-thrombin, 2. Inhibiting thrombin; Causes WBC and platelet clumping; Used in special hematology and chemistry  
Gray Top Contains( 1.Sodium Fluorde- preserves glucose and alcohol, 2. Potassium Oxalate- anticoagulant, binds calcium); For glucose and alcohol testing  
Red Top   Contains no anticaogulant; Used for most chemistry tests  
Tiger Top   aka " Marble top"; COntains no anticoagulant; Has silica gel at the bottom for serum and clot separation
Created by: 701388275
 

 



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