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AAB Study Exam
|What is the composition of whole blood?
|Plasma (55%) RBC's (45%) WBC/PLT (1%)
|What is pancytopenia?
|Reduction of all blood cell types including RBC (anemia), WBC (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombopenia).
|What is hemostasis and which cell is primarily involved?
|Hemostasis is also known as clotting. The major cell involved is platelets.
|What stain is used to visualize retics?
|What portion of a retic is stained?
|The residual ribosomal RNA
|What is the normal range for retics in a normal adult?
|0.5 to 1.7%
|Result of possible multiple myeloma, elevated fibrinogen or globulins in plasma. Looks like a stack of coins.
|Which organs are part of the hematopoietic system?
|The spleen, red marrow, liver, lymphnodes, and thymus.
|What can polychromasia indicate?
|Either that a treatment for anemia is working or that there is increased hemolysis of the RBC's.
|Polychromatic cells are also referred to a retics. They are immature blood cells that are released into the blood stream. Usually occurs following acute or chronic hemorrhage, hemolysis, or as a regenerative rbc process.
|Diameter of rbc is < 6um, MCV < 80 fL, caused by hb synthesis defect or IDA, thalassemia
|9um or larger, MCv > 100 fL, caused by liver disease, post-splenectomy, megaloblastic conditions
|What type of RBC's does the Osmotic fragility test for?
|Spherocytes, they lyse faster than normal RBC's in hypotonic solns
|What are common reasons to perform a sed rate?
|To see if there is an inflammatory process taking place, multiple myeloma, PID, Lupus, RA, kidney disease.
|What is the normal reference range for sed rate?
|0 to 20 mm/hr
|Auer rods are only seen in which cell line?
|How do you calculate MCV?
|hct/RBC x 10
|how do you calculate MCH?
|hgb/rbc x 10
|How do you calculate MCHC?
|hgb/hct x 100
|Basophilic stippling can indicate
|lead poisoning; congenital dyserythropoetic anemia; thalassemia alpha and beta (among others)
|What is the osmotic fragility test for?
|Shows the presence of spherocytes; hereditary spherocytosis, and hemolytic anemias are more fragile (also increased in old blood)
|What is the RBC count, the indices and the typical RBC morphology of thalassemia?
|increased RBC (erythroid hyperplasia); micro/hypo; target cells, basophilic stippling
|What is the cause of siderocytes/sideroblasts?
|Sideroblastic anemia; there is a disturbed or missing enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway; this leads to iron accumulation within mitochondria, which eventually rupture and deposit the iron into the cell
|What condition causes increased Heinz bodies?
|Glucose 6 Phosphate deficiencty (G6PD)
|What are Heinz bodies made of?
|What is basophillic stippling composed of?
|RNA and ribosomes
|What does Prussian blue stain?
|What is anemia in sickle cell caused by?
|extravascular hemolysis (cells taken out by spleen)
|What happens to the blood in alcoholism?
|can cause stomatocytes and/or ecchinocytes
|What are four states that can lead to target cells?
|thalassemia; liver disease; hemoglobin C disorders; splenectomy
|Congenital red cell aplasia is called . .
|Congenital aplastic anemia is called . . .
|What is G6PD?
|glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencty; the most common erythorcyte enzyme disorder
|Fluid portion of blood
|1. Plasma- contains fibrinogen; 2. Serum- contains no fibrinogen (used to form clot)
|Shrinkage of RBC's; Decreased hematocrit; Decreased ESR; Degenerated WBC; Increase MCHC; Platelet swell and break up causing an increased count
|in lavender/Purple top test must be performed within how mant hours of collection
|2 Hours; After 6 hours RBC's swell and WBC's show vacuolization and pyknotic nucleus (dark RBC nucleus)
|Containd Sodium CItrate 9:1; Choice for caogulation studies; Maintains stability of the coagulation factors ( Factor V- Proaccelerin, Factor VIII- Antihemophilic A) Maintains functional abilities of platelets: ( Used for CBC if platelet clumps in EDT
|Test plasma within 2 hours of collection otherwise freeze or refrigerate; 9:1 Ratio is critical (no short draws)
|Adjusting anti-coagulant in blue top
|Adjust amount of anticaogulant on patients with HCT above 55% ( high HCT means less plasma, less plasma needs less anticoagulant); citrate= (100 -HCT/595 -HCT) x amt of blood
|Contains heparin; Prevents coagulation by: 1. Interacting with anti-thrombin, 2. Inhibiting thrombin; Causes WBC and platelet clumping; Used in special hematology and chemistry
|Contains( 1.Sodium Fluorde- preserves glucose and alcohol, 2. Potassium Oxalate- anticoagulant, binds calcium); For glucose and alcohol testing
|Contains no anticaogulant; Used for most chemistry tests
|aka " Marble top"; COntains no anticoagulant; Has silica gel at the bottom for serum and clot separation