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CSU Research Terms

CSU Research Terms (Mostly Quantitative)

QuestionAnswer
Null hypothesis rejected in p... p value is < .05
Nominal data two or more mutually exclusive categories. male/female
Power The ability to find differences between groups or correlations.
Research Reliability Confirmability – This requires that researchers explain their procedures clearly
Placebo effect subjects respond to a treatment with positive effects because they believe that it will work. Placebo effects occur in both experimental and control groups (both aspirin and sugar pills will have a placebo effect on headaches)
Hawthorne effect subject's knowledge of participation in experiment influences results
Experimenter bias expectations of investigator influence results. Blinding can help
Learning effect Experience with pretest influences subject's scores on post test. Participants have learned the test.
Ordinal data classifies and ranks in terms of the degree they possess a common characteristic. NOT equal intervals. MMT.
Interval data Ranks on predetermined EQUAL INTERVALS. NO true ZERO. IQ, F/C temp
Ratio data ranks based on EQUAL INTERVALS and TRUE ZERO POINT. most precise level of measurement. weight, time, inches, miles
Double blind study subject & investigator not aware of group assignment (experimental or control)
Bind to test results Anyone giving a test or assessment in a study should be blind to the results of other tests and blind to group assignment in order to avoid bias
Effect size size of difference between sample means. T-tests, ANOVAs find a difference in group mean scores. Effect size describes the size of the difference
Generalizability The degree to which findings apply to an entire population
Informed consent A process by which participants learn about general nature of study, any risks, what will be done to minimize risks, possible benefits etc. before agreeing to be in a study
Control group Group resembling experiemental group that does not receive independent variable.
Intervening variable variable that alters the relationship between IND and DEP
Research Validity Is NOT the same as assessment validity
Internal validity degree observed differences in DEP variable are result of IND variable and not some other variable
External Validity Degree results are generalizable to popn or to environmental settings outside of study
Sampling bias sampling error - convenience sampling, increases risk of this. Large Random samples help samples to match populations.
n Sample
N Population
Independent Variable A hypothesized cause of an effect. Usually a treatment or intervention.
Dependent Variable The effect that you are expecting based on a treatment, an intervention or some other independent variable.
Created by: OTTeacherLady