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VPHY 141 1st lect

VPHY 141 1st lect Chapter 1

To provide contractility of the cell (Cytoskeletal protein) Microfilaments
Long thinnest among the cytoskeletal proteins Microfilaments
Cytoskeletal protein important for mitosis Microtubule
Most stable component of the cytoplasm Intermediate filaments
Responsible for the placement of the organelles in cytoplasm Intermediate filaments
Important for the movement of organelles (Cytoskeletal protein) Microtubule
Cell protein molecules that are round in shape Globular proteins
Example of globular proteins in cells Enzymes
Conjugated protein of albumins glycoprotein
Conjugated protein of globulin lipoprotein
Conjugated protein of protamines Nucleoproteins
Conjugated protein of prolamines Chromoproteins
Conjugated protein of histones Metalloproteins
Conjugated protein of albuminoids Phosphoproteins
Constitute 2% of the inner cell mass Lipids
Integral part of the cell membrane Lipids
Molecules which provide nutrition to the cell Carbohydrates
Comprise 1% of the inner cell mass Carbohydrates
Stored form of carbohydrates glycogen
Where is glycogen stored Liver and skeletal muscles
Largest single organelle in the cell Nucleus
Controls different activities inside the cell Nucleus
Double membrane enveloping the nucleus separated by perinuclear space and interrupted by nuclear pores Nuclear membrane or Nuclear envelope
Soluble form of nuclear material not occupied by nucleolus or chromatin Nucleoplasm
RNA containing body in the nucleolus Nucleolus
Range of number of nucleolus 1-4
Site of RNA synthesis Nucleolus
Produces rRNA which are packaged with proteins to form ribosomes Nucleolus
Gaps in the nuclear membrane that allow transport of targeted proteins into the nucleus and transport of mRNA out of the nucleus Nuclear pore
Carries DNA in animals Chromatin
Chromatin occurs in pairs except in? Germ cells
Condensed chromatin, metabolically active Heterochromatin
Dispersed chromatin, replicating Euchromatin
Intertwine the chromatin Histones
Formed by he inner membrane of mitochondria Cristae
Site of Krebs or TCA cycle, cellular respiration Mitochondria
Part of mitochondria dense with DNA, large phosphate granules and ribosomes Mitochondrial matrix
Smaller ribosomes? Mitochondrial or Cytoplasmic? Mitochondrial
Contains the enzymes for the Kreb Cycle and beta oxidation of fats Mitochondrial matrix
Has own DNA and reproduce independently Mitochondrial matrix
Contains the enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation Inner membrane of Mitochondria
Contains electron carriers for the electron-transport system Inner membrane of Mitochondria
Needed to synthesize ATP during cellular respiration F1 factor or ATP Synthase
Suicide bag Lysosomes
Size of Lysosomes? 0.2 to 0.5 micrometer
Responsible for digesting the food vacuoles of degenrating organelles of the cell Lysosomes
Single-membrane-bound organelle with a high content of hydrolytic enzymes Lysosomes
How may acid hydrolases in lysosomes? 40
pH where lysosomes function best ph 3.5-5
Maintain acidity Proton pumping
Protects the cell from the lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes Lysosomal membrane
Where is new lysosomes synthesized? Golgi Apparatus
Digest lipids Lipase
Degenerating organelle cell (Engulfed by lysosomal enzyme) Autophagic vacuole
Bacteria or foregin substances (Engulfed by lysosomal enzyme) Phagocytic vacuole
Other Functions of Lysosomes: 1-7 4DBSK
A small membrane-boung vesicle containing oxidative enzymes Peroxisomes
Oxidative enzymes of peroxisomes are involved in? Beta oxidation of fats Production of hydrogen peroxide
Peroximal Oxidative Enzymes? Catalase Urase Oxidase D-amino oxidase (CUD)
Storage vesicles containing secretory substances formed by the ER-Golgi Apparatus System Secretory vesicles
A complex series of tubules in the cytoplasm of the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum
Site of protein synthesis for extracellular use (Hormones) Granular ER
Continuous with the outer nuclear membrane Granular ER
Site for lipid synthesis (Steroid and cell membrane phospholipids) Agranular ER
Site for processing of synthesized proteins Agranular ER
Site for detoxification of foreign substances Agranular ER
Ribosomes = % RNA + % Protein 65% RNA 35% Protein
Occurs freely in the cytoplasm Free ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis for intracellular use (Non-secretory and non-membranous proteins) Free ribosomes
Synthesizes proteins for extracellular use (Hormones and Integral membrane proteins) Bound proteins
Membrane enclosed sacs of Golgi apparatus Cisterns
Forming phase of GA Cis face
Face when transport vesicles are formed from ER Cis face
Maturing phase of GA Trans face
Face when secretory granules are formed Trans face
System of fibers that support or provides framework of the cell Cytoskeleton
Diameter of microtubule 25 nm
Diameter of Intermediate filament 10 nm
Diameter of microfilaments 8 nm
A long hollow structure made up of alpha and beta tubulin sub units Microtubules
Arrangement of microtubules in cilia and flagella doublet
Arrangement of microtubules in centrioles and basal bodies Triplet
Functions of Microtubules 6 Functions Cris squared Monching square Pogi at Tan
Produces microtubule sliding; causes microtubule to bend Dynein
Structure near the nucleus Centrosome
Serves as site for microtubule production Centrosome
Consists of a pair of centrioles and amorphous pericentriolar material Centrosome
Short cylinders located near the nucleus, arranged at right angles to one another Centrioles
1 bundle of microtubule = ? microtubules 3 microtubules
1 centriole = ? bandles of microtubules 9 bandles of microtubules
1 centrosome = ? centrioles 2 centrioles
1 centriole = ? microtubules 27 microtubules
1 centrosome = ? microtubules 54 microtubules
Long projections in apical surfaces of cells that transport materials along the surface of the cells Cilia
Types of Cilia Kinocilia Stereocilia
Cytoskeletal structure important for connecting the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane Intermediate Filaments
Intermediate Filament Protein in epithelium Keratin I, II
Intermediate Filament Protein in mesenchymal cells Vimentin
Intermediate Filament Protein in muscles Desmin
Intermediate Filament Protein in glial cells, strocytes Glial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins (GFAP)
Intermediate Filament Protein in peripheral nerves Neurofilamental proteins
Intermediate Filament Protein in all cells Lamin proteins (A, B, C)
Intermediate Filament Protein in Neuronal stem cells Nestin
Functions of Intermediate Filaments PA (Personal assist) 1. P- Provides mechanical strength on tissues (Bears tension) 2. Anchoring cytoplasmic organelles
Makes up microfilaments actin and myosin
Participates in cytoskinesis Microfilaments
Contractile component of muscles Microfilaments
Functions in the formation of filopodium for movement of fibroblasts Microfilaments
Finger-like projection found at the apex of intestinal epithelial cells Microvilli
Components of cell membrane CHO, Pro, lipids
% Pro, % Lip, % CHO = Cell membrane 55%, 42%, 3%
5 Major Phospholipid group Phosphatidylcholine Sphingomyelin Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylserine Phosphatidylinositol
Phospholipid group located at the outer part of the cell membrane Phosphotidylcholine Sphingomyelins
Phospholipid group located at the inner part of the cell membrane Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatidylethanolamin Phosphatidylserine
Most common sterol in the cell membrane Cholesterol
Intercalates among the membrane phospholipids for the maintenance of fluidity of the cell membrane Cholesterol
Sugar containing lipids Glycolipids
Glycolipids located intracellularly or extracellularly? Extra
Example of glycolipids Cerebrosides, gangliosides
Why is cholesterol important in the maintenance of fluidity? Cholesterol among the membrane prevents solidification of phospholipids during low temps; increase in unsaturation since unsaturated fats have low melting points than saturated fats
Catalyze transverse movement in the cell membrane Flippases
CHO-containing layer on the surface of eukaryotic cells Cell Coat
More extensive cell coat found on special surfaces such as the brush border of the intestinal epithelial cell Glycocalyx
Component of the cell membrane responsible for the functional behavior Membrane proteins
Membrane protein associated with the cytoplasm Peripheral protein (Extrinsic Protein)
Membrane protein penetrating through the plasma membrane Integral protein (Intrinsic Protein)
Membrane protein usually form a coiled alpha-helix structure that spans the cell membrane Integral Protein
Proportionate reduction in ECF and ICF volume Simple water deficit
Will always cause a reduction in ECF volume NaCl deficit
Created by: gmvp



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