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SRGT Ch10 Terminolog

Cardiovascular System Ch10 Terminology

Vessels vascul/o, angio/o, vas/o
Aorta aort/o
Arteries arteri/o
Arterioles arteriol/o
Capillaries capillar/o
Venules venul/o
Veins ven/o, phleb/o
Location of heart... in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity, slightly left of the midline
Coronary arteries/heart muscle dedicated system of blood supply
Atria *** atri/o upper chambers
Ventricles *** ventricul/o lower chambers
Septa *** sept/o tissue wall between the chambers
Endocardium *** endocardi/o inner lining of each of the chambers
Myocardium *** myocardi/o cardiac muscle
Pericardium *** pericardi/o surrounds the heart
Visceral pericardium *** (epicardium) inner surface of double fold
Parietal pericardium *** outer membrane
BPM beats per minute
Normal HR 60-100 bpm
BP blood pressure
sphygmomanometer BP cuff
Systole contractive phase (120/)
Diastole relaxation phase (/80)
SA sinoatrial node natural pacemaker of the heart
AV atrioventricular node carries electrical signal
NSR normal sinus rhythm (normal electrical activity)
Arrhythmias deviation of electrical signal or abnormal rhythm
Bundle of His (atroventricular bundle) in the interatrial septum and its right and left bundle branches transmit the impulse to the Purkinje fibers in the right and left ventricles
Purkinje fibers receive stimulation from Bundle of His and cause ventricles to undergo electrical changes that signal contraction to force blood out to the pulmonary arteries and the aorta
Bradycardia slow heartbeat (below 60 bpm)
Tachycardia rapid heartbeat (more than 100 bpm)
Cardiodynia heart pain
Cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
Cyanosis lack of oxygen in blood
Diaphoresis profuse sweating
Claudication cramp-like pains in the calves caused by poor circulation
Dyspnea difficult and/or painful breathing
Edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
Bruit abnormal sound (blowing, whistling) heard when an artery is ascultated (act of listening for sounds made by body organs)
Pallor paleness of skin and/or mucous membranes
Palpitations pounding or racing of the heart
Pulmonary congestion excessive amount of blood in the pulmonary vessels
SOB shortness of breath
Syncope fainting or loss of consciousness
Thrill fine vibration felt by the examiner on palpation
Palpation examine by touch
Coarctation of aorta localized narrowing of the aorta
PDA (patent ductus arteriosus) abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
ASD atrial septal defect
VSD ventricular septal defect
Tetralogy of Fallot congenital anomaly that consists of four defects
AS (aortic stenosis) narrowing of the aortic valve
MS (mitral stenosis) narrowing of the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
TS (tricuspid stenosis) narrowing of the tricuspid valve
MR (mitral regurgitation) backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium
MVP protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium
Orthopnea condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe comfortably
Valvulitis inflammatory condition of a valve
Infarction tissue death
Arrhythmia abnormal variation from the normal heartbeat rhythm (dysrhythmia)
Ectopic beats heartbeats that occur outside of a normal rhythm
Angina pectoris chest pain that is often accompanied by SOB and a sensation of impending doom
CAD (coronary artery disease) accumulation and hardening of plaque in the coronary arteries that eventually can deprive the heart muscle of oxygen, leading to angina
MI (myocardial infarction) cardiac tissue death that occurs when the coronary arteries are occluded by atheroma (fat or lipids on the wall of an artery) or a blood clot
Cardiac tamponade compression of the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial sac
Cardiomyopathy progressive disorder of the ventricles of the heart
HF (heart failure) inability of the heart to pump blood efficiently
Endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium
Pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
Arteriosclerosis arterial walls become thickened and lose their elasticity WITHOUT the presence of atheromas
Atheroscelrosis medium and large arteries have atheromas, which reduce or obstruct blood flow
Aneurysm localized dilation of an artery caused by a congenital or acquired weakness in the wall of the vessel
Hemorrhoid varicose condition of the external or internal rectal veins
Hypertension HTN high or elevated blood pressure
Hypotension below normal blood pressure
Peripheral arterial occlusion blockage of blood flow to the lower extremities
PVD (peripheral vascular disorder) any vascular disease limited to the extremities
Thrombophlebitis inflammation of either deep or superficial veins
Varicose veins elongated, dilated superficial veins with incompetent valves that permit reverse blood flow
Vasculitis inflammation of the blood vessels
PET (positron emission tomography) computerized nuclear medicine procedure that uses inhaled or injected radioactive substances to help identify how much a patient will benefit from revascularization procedures
Radiography x-rays
Phlebography x-rays of a vein after the introduction of a contrast dye
Cardiac catheterization threading of a catheter into the heart to collect diagnostic infomration about structures in the heart, coronary arteries and great vessels
Swan-Ganz catheter long, thin cardiac catheter with a tiny balloon at the tip used to determine left ventricular function by measuring pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
ECG/EKG (electrocardiography) recording of electrical impulses of the heart [the record is called an electrocardiogram]
Holter monitor portable electrocardiograph that is worn to record the reaction of the heart to daily activities
cardiac pacemaker small battery operated device that helps the heart beat in a regular rhythm
CABG (coronary artery bypass graft) open heart surgery in which a piece of blood vessel from another location is grafted onto one of the coronary arteries to reroute blood around a blockage
ECC extracorporeal ciculation
LVAD left ventricular assist device
MIDCAB minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass
PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) surgical procedure in which a catheter is threaded into the coronary artery affected by atheroscerotic heart disease
Pericardiocentesis aspiration of fluid from the pericardium to treat cardiac tamponade
PACAB (port-access coronary artery bypass) procedure in which the heart is stopped and bypass surgery is accomplished through small incisions in the chest
Vavuloplasty repair of a stenosed heart valve with the use of a balloon-tipped catheter
CO2 carbon dioxide
PA pulmonary artery
Atypical pain (cardiac pain) stabbing or burning that is variable in location and intensity and unrelated to exertion
Ischemic pain pressing, squeezing or weight-like cardiac pain caused by decreased blood supply and usually only lasts only minutes
-pnea breathing
Coarctation narrowing
Patent open
Tetra- four
Ec- out of
top/o place
Coron/o heart
Ather/o fat, plaque
DVT deep vein thrombosis
Varic/o dilated vein
TEE (transesophageal echocardiography) images the heart through a transducer introduced into the esophagus
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Created by: alyseg
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