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SRGT Ch5 Terminology

Gastrointestinal System Ch5 Terminology

Prefixes: A- no; not; without
Prefixes: Dys- bad; painful; abnormal; difficult
Prefixes: Hyper- excessive; above
Prefixes: Par- near; beside
Prefixes: Peri- around; surrounding
Prefixes: Sub- under; below
Suffixes: -ectomy removal; excision; resection
Suffixes: -emesis to vomit
Suffixes: -pepsia digestion
Suffixes: -rrhea discharge; flow
Suffixes: -scopy visual examination
Suffixes: -stalsis contraction
Suffixes: -stomy new opening
Suffixes: -tresia opening
Combining forms: Append/o, appendic/o appendix
Combining forms: Cholecyst/o gallbladder
Combining forms: Col/o, colon/o colon
Combining forms: Dent/i; odont/o teeth
Combining forms: Enter/o small intestines
Combining forms: Esophag/o esophagus
Combining forms: Gastr/o stomach
Combining forms: Hepat/o liver
Combining forms: Or/o oral cavity
Combining forms: Pancreat/o pancreas
Combining forms: Proct/o rectum and anus
Combining forms: Aliment/o nutrition
Combining forms: Phag/o eat or swallow
Combining forms: Cheil/o, labi/o lips
Inner GI layer tunica mucosa
Middle GI layer submucosa
Outer GI layer tunica muscularis
Peristalsis contractions and relaxations in the intestines in a wavelike movement to move food through the digestive tract
Ingestion intake of food
Digestion breakdown of food
Absorption extracting nutrients
Elimination excretion of waste products
Route through Body -Oral cavity -Mediastinal cavity -Abdominopelvic cavity (peritoneal cavity: stomach and intestines)
Mastication chewing
Deglutition swallowing
Cheeks bucc/o
Tongue gloss/o, lingu/o
Palate palat/o (roof of mouth)
Gums gingiv/o
uvula uvul/o
salivary glands sialaden/o saliva (sial/o)
Parotid near the ear
Sublingual under the tongue
Submandibular lower jaw
Maxilla upper jaw
Mandible lower jaw
Pharynx (pharyng/o) nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx (tube that connects the oral cavity with the esophagus)
Bolus chewed lump of food
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)/cardiac sphincter/gastroesophageal sphincter muscle that relaxes before food enters the stomach
Sphincter ringlike muscle
Duodenum first part (proximal) of small intestine
Jejunum second part of small intestine
Ileum third part (distal) of the small intestine
Cecum first part of the large intestines -Ileocecal sphincter -veriform appendix
Accessory organs (Adnexa) -Liver -Gallbladder -Pancreas
Liver functions to ... produce bile
Liver located ... RUQ
Location/lobes lob/o
Bile emulsifies fats, composed of bilirubin and cholesterol
Process of bile: bile in liver - bile ducts - hepatic duct - joins with cystic duct from gallbladder to form the common bile duct - empties bile into the duodenum
Gallbladder located: RUQ stores bile from liver
Pancreas located: RUQ & LUQ exocrine function of the pancreas is key in the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
Common Bile Duct choledoch/o
Dyspepsia indigestion
Eructation burping, belching
Halitosis bad smelling breath
Pyrosis heartburn
Hiccup singultus
Flatus expelled gas
Hematochezia passage of bloody stool
Suffixes: -chezia condition of stools
Melena black, tarry stools
Esophagal atresia esophagus ends in a blind pouch - no opening to stomach
Hirschsprung disease absence of normal nervous function (megacolon)
Pyloric stenosis muscle between stomach and small intestine narrows or fails to open
Dental caries cavities
Malocclusion poor closure
Leukoplakia white patches
Pyorrhea discharge of pus in oral cavity
Dysphagia difficulty swallowing
(GERD) Gastroesophageal reflux disease flowing back of contents of the stomach to the esophagus
(PUD) Peptic ulcer disease erosion of protective mucosal lining of the stomach or duodenum
Anal fissure cracklike lesion of the skin around the anus
Fistula abnormal channel between organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body
Hemorrhoid varicose vein in the lower rectum or anus
Pruritus ani chronic condition of itching of the skin surrounding the anus
Crohn disease inflammation of the ileum or the colon
Intussusception inward telescoping of the intestines
Paralytic ileus lack of peristaltic movement in the intestinal tract
Volvulus twisting of the intestines
Jaundice yellowing of the skin
Hepatitis A direct contact with fecally contaminated food or water
Hepatitis B through contaminated blood or sexual contact
Hepatitis C through blood transfusion, percutaneous inoculation, or sharing infected needles
Cholelithiasis gall stones
Hiatal hernia protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the diaphragm
Hemangioma tumor of the blood vessels
Leiomyoma smooth muscle tumor
Polyp benign growth that may occur in the intestines
(SCCA) squamous cell carcinoma arises from the cells that cover the surfaces of the body
Bile vessels cholangi/o
Fluoroscopy X-ray that allows visualization of structures in real time
Anastomoses new connection created between two (usually hollow) structures
Ligat/o tying
Lysis of adhesions surgical destruction of adhesions
Paracentesis withdrawing fluid from a body cavity
Pyloromyotomy incision of the pyloric sphincter to correct an obstruction
Odontectomy removal of a tooth
Polypectomy removal of a polyp
Stomatoplasty surgical repair of the mouth
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
APR anterior posterior repair
lap. Chole laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Fold plic/o
Sweet, Sugar glu/o
Melan black, dark
Suffixes: -plakia condition of patches
Suffixes: -chalasia condition of relaxation
Created by: alyseg