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SRGT Ch3 Terminology

Musculoskeletal System Ch3 Terminology

Hematopoiesis formation of blood
Ligaments Fibrous bands of tissue that attach bone to bone
Tendons Bands of tissue that attach muscle to bone
Fascia Tough fibrous covering of the muscles
Cartilage Covers the ends of many bones and serves a protective function
Rheumatology Disorders of connective tissue
Axial Skeleton Skull, rib cage and spine
Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder bones, collar bones, pelvic bones, legs and arms
Shapes: Long bones Humerus (upper arm), femur (thigh bone)
Shapes: Short bones Carpal (wrist bone), tarsal (ankle bone)
Shapes: Flat bones Sternum (breastbone), scapula (shoulder blade)
Shapes: Irregular bones Vertebra (back bone), stapes (bone of the middle ear)
Shapes: Sesamoid bones Patella (knee cap)
Osteocytes Mature bone cells
Matrix Material between the cells
Osteoblasts Build bone
Osteoclasts Break down bone cells to transform them as needed
Compact bone Hard bone
Cancellous Spongy bone
Medullary cavity Bone marrow (myel/o)
Long bones: Diaphysis Long shaft of bone
Long bones: Epiphysis End of bone
Long bones: Epiphyseal Bone growth area
Long bones: Metaphysis Epiphysis and epiphyseal plates together
Bone Depressions: Fissure (fissur/o) fairly deep cleft or groove
Bone Depressions: Foramen (pl. foramina) (foramin/o) an opening or hole
Bone Depressions: Fossa (pl. fossae) (foss/o) a hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone
Bone Depressions: Sinus (pl. sinuses) (sinus/o, sin/o) cavity or channel lined with a membrane
Bone Depressions: Sulcus (pl. sulci) (sulc/o) groove or depression in an anatomic structure, not as deep as a fissure
Bone Processes: Condyle (condyl/o) rounded projection at the end of a bone that anchors ligaments and articulates with adjacent bones
Bone Processes: Crest Narrow elongated elevation
Bone Processes: Epicondyle (epicondyl/o) projection on the surface of the bone above the condyle
Bone Processes: Head rounded, usually proximal portion of some long bones
Bone Processes: Spine (spin/o) thornlike projection
Bone Processes: Trochanter (trochanter/o) one or two bony projections on the proximal ends of the femurs that serve as points of attachment for muscles
Bone Processes: Tubercle (tubercul/o) nodule or small raised area
Bone Processes: Tuberosity elevation or protuberance larger than a tubercle
Cranium (crani/o) made up of... Frontal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone
Facial bones (skull) made up of... Zygoma (zygom/o, zygomat/o) cheekbone Lacrimal bones (lacrim/o) corner of eye; cradle tear ducts Maxilla (maxill/o) upper jaw bone Mandible (mandibul/o) lower jaw bone Vomer (vomer/o) Palatine bones (palat/o) Inferior nasal conchae
How many pairs of ribs (cost/o) 12
True ribs... 1st seven pairs attached directly to the breastbone (sternum) in the front of the body
False ribs... next five pairs
Floating ribs... not attached in the front
Rib cage: Sternum (stern/o) AKA: breastbone Xiphoid process: inferior point
______ bones = vertebra 26
Vertebrae made up of... Spinous process (spin/o) Laminar (lamin/o) process Vertebral body Transverse process
Sections of spine... Cervical (cervic/o) C1-C7 neck bones Thoracic (thorac/o) T1-T12 upper back Lumbar (lumb/o) L1-L5 lower back Sacral (sacr/o) 5 bones fused Coccygeal (coccyg/o) tailbone
Upper Appendicular Bones: Scapula (scapul/o) Acromion process Forms highest point on the shoulder
Upper Appendicular Bones: Clavicle (clavicul/o, cleid/o) Collarbone
Upper Appendicular Bones: Humerus humer/o
Upper Appendicular Bones: Radius & ulna (radi/o, uln/o) Olecranon (olecran/o) elbow
Upper Appendicular Bones: Carpals (carp/o) 8 wrist bones
Upper Appendicular Bones: Metacarpals metacarp/o
Upper Appendicular Bones: Phalanges phalang/o
Lower Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvis (pelv/i, pelv/o) Ilium (ili/o) superior and widest bone of pelvis Ischium (ischi/o) lower portion of pelvic bone Pubis (pub/o) lower anterior part of pelvic bone
Lower Appendicular Skeleton: Leg Femur (femor/o): thigh bone Patella (patell/o,a): knee cap Tibia (tibi/o): shin bone Fibula (fibul/o, perone/o) malleolus: process on distal ends of tibia and fibula
Lower Appendicular Skeleton: Foot Tarsal (tars/o) Metatarsal (metatars/o) calcaneous: heel bone Phalan
ROM Range of Motion
ROM Synarthoses Immovable joint
ROM Amphiarthroses Slightly movable joint
ROM Diarthroses (synovial) Free movement -ball and socket joint (hip) -hinge joint (knee) Bursa (sacs of fluid) Meniscus (crescent shaped cartilage in the knee joint-cushion joint)
Muscles (my/o, myos/o, muscul/o): tissue composed of cells with ability to contract and relax
Skeletal muscles striated and allows the skeleton to move voluntarily
Smooth muscles responsible for involuntary movement of the organs
Heart muscles pumps blood to the circulatory system
Tendons (tend/o, tendin/o, ten/o) Attach muscles to bones
Origin attachment nearest to the trunk
Insertion attachment farthest from trunk
Action function of the muscle
Extension process of stretching out; increasing the angle of a joint
Flexion process of decreasing the angle of a joint
Adduction process of carrying toward the midline (ADD=toward)
Abduction carrying away from the midline
Supination turning the palm or MEDIAL side of foot UPWARD
Pronation turning the palm or LATERAL side of foot DOWNWARD
Dorsiflexion upward
Plantar flexion downward (ballet movement)
Eversion process of turning OUT
Inversion process of turning in
Protraction moving leg foward
Retraction moving leg backward
Rotation process of a bone turning on its axis (like a wheel)
Circumduction process of carrying around; the circular movement of the distal end of a limb around its point of attachment
Combining Form: Phosphorus phosph/o
Combining Form: Calcium calc/o
Combining Form: Antrum antr/o
Combining Form: Nose nas/o; rhin/o
Combining Form: Sinus sin/o; sinus/o
Combining Form: Chest pector/o
Prefix: Meta- change, beyond
Prefix: Peri surrounding (periosteum)
Congenital Conditions: Achondroplasia disorder of the development of cartilage at the epiphyses of the long bones and skull resulting in dwarfism
Congenital Conditions: (key term) Muscular dystrophy group of disorders characterized as an inherited progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle without neural involvement
Congenital Conditions: Polydactyl many digits
Congenital Conditions: Syndactyl joining of digits (web like)
Congenital Conditions: Spina bifida occulta malformation of spinal canal
Congenital Conditions: Talipes clubfoot
Congenital Conditions: Torticollis wryneck
Bone Disease: Osteodynia bone pain
Bone Disease: Osteitis deformans Paget's Disease
Bone Disease: (key term) Osteomalacia softening of the bone Rickets
Bone Disease: (key term) Osteomyelitis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
Bone Disease: (key term) Osteoporosis loss of bone mass, which results in the bones being fragile and at risk of fracture Osteopenia
Chondromalacia softening of cartilage
Costochondritis inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
Joint Disease: Bursitis inflammation of the Bursa (sac of fluid that cushion a joint)
Arthrosis An arthrosis is a joint, an area where two bones are attached for the purpose of motion of body parts. An arthrosis (joint) is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage
Baker cyst also known as a popliteal cyst, is a benign swelling of the semimembranous or more rarely some other synovial bursa found behind the knee joint
Crepitus characterized by a peculiar crackling, crinkly, or grating feeling or sound under the skin, around the lungs, or in the joints.
Osteophytosis the occurrence of osteophytes. Can occur because of degenerative disease.
Tendinitis inflammation, swelling, and irritation of a tendon. Tendonitis is a painful condition that is felt most at the tendon insertion site
Joint Disease: Bunion fairly common, painful enlargement and inflammation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (big toe)
Joint Disease: (key term) Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) compression injury of the mediannerve surgery=CTR (carpal tunnel release)
Joint Disease: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) gnathalgia
Joint Disease: (key term) Osteoarthritis (OA) degenerative joint disease (DJD)
Rheumatiod arthritis (RA) (key term) inflammatory joint disease believed to be autoimmune in nature
Dorsalgia back pain (spinal disorder)
Lumbago (key term) disease of the lumbar (spinal disorder)
Scoliosis (key term) lateral "S" curve of spine
Lordosis "swayback' exaggerated anterior curve of the lumbar vertebrae (lower back)
Kyphosis "hunchback" extreme posterior curvature of the thoracic area of the spine
Spinal Disorders: Ankylosing spondylitis chronic inflammatory disease of idiopathic origin, which causes a fusion of the spine
Spinal Disorders: (key term) Herniated intervertebral disk protrusion of central part of the disk that lies between the vertebrae, resulting in compression of the nerve root and pain
Spinal Disorders: Spondylolisthesis condition resulting from the partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it
Spinal Disorders: (key term) Spinal stenosis abnormal condition of narrowing of the spinal canal with attendant pain, sometimes caused by osteoarthritis or spondylolithesis
Spinal Disorders: Spindylosis stiffening of the vertebral joints
Spinal Disorders: Sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve; pain, tenderness along course of nerve through thigh and leg; may result in atrophy of lower leg muscles
Muscle Disorders: Contracture chronic fixation of a joint inflexion caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers after a long period of disuse
Muscle Disorders: Fibromyalgia disorder characterized by musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, muscle stiffness and spasms, and sleep distrubances
Muscle Disorders: Myasthenia gravis usually severe condition characterized by fatigue and a progressive muscle weakness, especially of face and throat
Muscle Disorders: Plantar fasciitis a painful inflammatory process of the plantar fascia
Muscle Disorders: Polymyositis means 'many muscle inflammation'
Muscle Disorders: Postlaminectomy syndrome after the removal of a piece of bone in the spine; group of symptoms occur together it's called syndrome
Muscle Disorders: Rhabdomyolysis the breakdown of muscle fibers resulting in the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream
Trauma: Closed fracture simple fracture does not rupture the skin
Trauma: Open fracture compound fracture splits open the skin
Trauma: (key term) Pathologic fracture any fracture occurring spontaneously as a result of disease
Trauma: Comminuted fracture the bone is crushed and/or shattered into many pieces
Trauma: Compression fracture the fractured area of bone collapses on itself
Trauma: Colles fracture this break of the distal end of the radius at the epiphysis often occurs when the patient has attempted to break his fall
Trauma: Complicated fracture the bone is broken and pierces an internal organ
Trauma: Impacted fracture the bone is broken and the ends are driven into each other
Trauma: Hairline fracture minor fracture appears as a thin line on x-ray may not extend completely through the bone
Trauma: Greenstick fracture the bone is partially bent and partially broken; common in children because their bones are still soft
Trauma: Salter-Harris fracture fracture of the epiphyseal plate in children
Trauma: (key term) Sprain traumatic injury to ligaments of a joint, including tearing of a ligament
Trauma: (key term) Strain overstretching of muscle or a tendon
Trauma: Dislocation bone completely out of place
Trauma: (key term) Subluxation bone partially out of the joint
Trauma: Compartment syndrome -STAT surgical procedure -Result of swelling within the fascia -May lead to nerve and muscle damage
Benign Neoplasms: Exostosis abnormal condition of bony growth
Benign Neoplasms: Osteoma benign bone tumor, usually of compact bone
Benign Neoplasms: Chondroma tumor of the cartilage, usually in children or adolescents
Benign Neoplasms: Leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle; most common is the uterus termed a fibroid
Benign Neoplasms: Rhabdomyoma benign tumor of striated/voluntary skeletal muscle
Malignant Neoplasms: Osteosarcoma -Ewing sarcoma -malignant tumor of the bone
Malignant Neoplasms: Chondrosarcoma malignant tumor of the cartilage
Malignant Neoplasms: Leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor of smooth muscle
Malignant Neoplasms: Rhabdomyosarcoma highly malignant tumor of skeletal muscle
Imaging: Arthography X-ray recording of a joint
Imaging: (key term) Arthoscopy visual examination of a joint accomplished by use of an arthroscope
Imaging: Computed tomography (CT) imaging technology that records transverse planes of the body for diagnostic purposes
Imaging: (key term) Electromyography procedure that records the electrical activity of muscles
Imaging: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that uses magnetic properties to record detailed information about internal structures
Imaging: Myelogram X-ray of spinal canal done after injection of contract medium
Imaging: X-ray (radiograph) imaging technique using electromagnetic radiation for recording internal structures
Setting fractures: Malunion bone does not mend and realign correctly
Setting fractures: Nonunion no healing takes place
Setting fractures: Sequestrum dead tissue
Setting fractures: Debridement removal of debris
Setting fractures: Internal fixation (ORIF) incision made (use plates, screws,etc)
Setting fractures: External fixation (CRIF) no incision made (devices external to the body that offer traction)
Setting fractures: Open reduction (ORIF) involves the implementation of implants to guide the healing process of a bone, as well as the open reduction, or setting, of the bone itself
Setting fractures: Closed reduction (CRIF) Reduction of a fractured bone by manipulation without incision into the skin
Therapeutic interventions: Amputation AKA-above knee amputation BKA-below knee amputation
Therapeutic interventions: (key term) Prosthesis artificial body part that is constructed to replace missing limbs, eyes, and other body parts
Therapeutic interventions: Bunionectomy removal of a bunion
Therapeutic interventions: Osteoclasis (clasis:intentional break) refracture of a bone, usually done if a bone has malunion
Therapeutic interventions: Osteoplasty surgical repair of a bone
Therapeutic interventions: Traction process of pulling a body part into correct alignment, as to correct a dislocation
Therapeutic interventions: Kyphoplasty -minimally invasive surgical procedure -address pain of fractured vertebrae -balloon inflated in area of fracture -cement-like substance injected -pain relief immediate
Therapeutic interventions: Laminectomy removal of the bony arches of one or more vertebrae to relive compression of the spinal cord
Therapeutic interventions: (key term) Arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid
Therapeutic interventions: Arthrodesis surgical binding or stabilization of a joint
Therapeutic interventions: (key term) Arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint
Therapeutic interventions: Meniscectomy removal of meniscus
Therapeutic interventions: THR total hip replacement
Therapeutic interventions: TKR total knee replacement
Pharmacology: Analgesics reduce pain
Pharmacology: Antiinflammatories reduce inflammation
Pharmacology: Antirheumatics manage symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Pharmacology: Bisphosphonates affect bone formation to treat diseases such as osteoporosis
Pharmacology: Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS) slow progression of rheumatoid arthritis
Pharmacology: Muscle relaxants relieve pain caused by muscle spasms by relaxing skeletal muscles
Prefix: Dia- through;complete
Prefix: Endo-, End- inner;within
Prefix: Epi- above; on top
Prefix: Inter- between
Prefix: Peri- around;surrounding
Prefix: Syn- together;with
Suffixes: -centesis removal of fluid
Suffixes: -desis binding
Suffixes: -graphy process of recording
Suffixes: -listhesis slipping
Suffixes: -malacia softening
Suffixes: -physis growth
Suffixes: -plasia development;formation
Suffixes: -plasty surgical repair
Suffixes: -trophy development
Combining Form: arthr/o joint
Combining Form: articul/o joint
Combining Form: burs/o bursa
Combining Form: chondr/o cartilage
Combining Form: ligament/o ligament
Combining Form: my/o muscle
Combining Form: myel/o bone marrow;spinal cord
Combining Form: oste/o bone
Combining Form: spondyl/o vertebra
Combining Form: tendin/o tendon
Suffixes: -blast embryonic
Suffixes: -clast breaking down
Suffixes: -cyte cell
Suffixes: -poiesis formation
Suffixes: -osis condition
Suffixes: -sthenia condition of strength
gravis severe
Created by: alyseg
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