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Introduction to Literary Studies I

What is literature? It encompasses all written communications in the broadest sense and only prose, poems, drama and specialist literature in the narrow sense
What is the criteria of 'functionality'? A imaginative or fabricated world in literary texts
What is the criteria of 'Literature as a non pragmatic discourse'? A literary text has no purpose and gives no directions for action
What is the criteria of "defamiliarisation'? The language used in literary texts deviates from everyday language
What is the criteria of 'the aesthetics of production and reception'? Literariness isn't a text-intrinsic feature. Production aesthetics -> text is a literary text as soon as it is the product of a specifically poetic imagination or inspiration. The aesthetics of reception -> literariness is created in the mid of the read
What is the criteria of 'cultural consensus'? Literature is what a specific society at a specific historical period regards as such.
What are the literary methods? -defamiliarisation -auto-functionality -> form dominates content -intertextuality -importance of connotation - ambiguity, polyvalence convention
What is semiotics? It's the study of signs and sign processes.
What are signs? Signs are entities with a communicative function. Entities which serve a predominantly pragmatic purpose have an instrumental function
What did Ferdinand de Saussure say? The signifier is not the signified.
What is an analogic sign? This sign shows a similarity to the object it refers to.
What is a digital sign? This sign shows no similarity to the object it refers to. E.g. human language
What is the difference between signifiers? syntagmatic - concerning positioning paradigmatic - concerning substitution
What is the plane of syntagm? It is that if the combination of 'this-and-this-and-this'
What is the plane of paradigm? It is that of selection of 'this-or-this-or-this'
What connection is between the paradigmatic and syntagmatic level? When we speak or write we usually select signs (words) which according to what we want to say come from various semantic fields and grammatical categories (paradigm) and combine them according to syntactic rules (syntagm).
What is denotation? The literal, the dictionary meaning, of words.
What is connotation? The aura of associations connected to a word.
What is a synonym? Two or more signfiers (words) refer to on signified (meaning).
What is an isotopy? Recurring elements in a text (usually semantic elements), which belong to the same paradigm.
What is a lyric text? A lyric text can be defined as the lyric I's immediate expression of subjective perceptions and emotions which is usually characterized by complex textual structure.
What is prose? Prose is characterized by an irregular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
What is a verse? Verse is determined by a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables -> by metre poetic compositions written in metre
What is a blank verse? At one end of the scale, consists of unrhymed iambic pentametres.
What is a couplet? A couplet is two lines of verse, usually couplet by rhyme.
What is a heroic couplet? A heroic couplet is a rhyming couplet composed in iambic pentameters.
What is a tercet? It's a stanza of three lines, traditionally linked with a single rhyme.
What is a quatrain? It's a stanza of four lines, rhymed or unrhymed.
What is a rhyme royal? It's a seven line iambic pentameter stanza, rhyming ababbcc
What is an ottava rima? It's a eight line stanza, rhymes abababcc
What is a Spenserian stanza? It has nine lines, first eight being iambic pentameter and the last an iambic hexameter (an "Alexandrine"), rhyming ababbcbcc
What is a sonnet? It is traditionally a poem of fourteen iambic pentameters linked by intricate rhyme scheme.
What is a villanelle? The first and third lines of the first stanza are rhyming refrains that alternate as the third line in each successive stanza and form a couplet at the close. A villanelle is nineteen lines long, consisting of five tercets and one concluding quatrain.
What is a limerick? Is a five line stanza thought to take it's name from an old custom at convivial parties whereby each person was required to sing an extemporized "nonsense verse", which was followed by a chorus containing the words "Will you come up to Limerick?"
What is visual poetry? It is poetry or art in which the visual arrangement of text, images and symbols is important in conveying the intended effect of the work.
How is an Italian sonnet defined? With its distinctive division into octave and sestet,is structually suited to a statement followed by a counter-statement.
How is an English sonnet defined? It falls into three quatrains, with a turn at the end of line 12 and a concluding couplet often a summary or epigrammatic character.
What do you know about the 'lyric I'? -can be covert, implicit subjectivity -can be overt, explicit subjectivity -collective lyric I 'we, us, ours' -different speaker => different perspectives in one poem
What do you know about the 'lyric thou'? -can be overt, remains hidden -addressed to a particular individual group => entirely and explicity
What is metre? It is defined by the kind of number of feet, i.e. a particular sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables, in a verse line.
What is an ictus and a non-ictus? An ictus is a stressed syllable. A non-ictus an unstressed syllable.
How is a prose rhythm defined? It's defined by an irregular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Content words are stressed; prepositions, articles and conjunctions are not word accent rhythm is also defined by what we want to say
What is iamb? It is an unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one.
What is trochee? It is a stressed syllables followed by an unstressed one.
What is dactyl? It is a stressed syllables followed by two unstressed ones.
What is anapest? It is two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one.
What meters do you know? monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter
What is a double stress? Two syllables stressed after each other. And see/ the brave/ day sunk/
What is an inversion? Change of word order. Time does/ transfix/ the flou/rish set in youth
What is a missing stress/unrealized ictus? And delves/ the par/rallels/ in brau/ty's brow
What is a run-on line? It is when the syntactic unit extends beyond the end of a verse line.
What is a caesura? It is a break in metre which divides up a line of verse into parts.
What is an end-rhyme? Rhyme between stressed and final vowels in lines of verse.
What is an internal rhyme? It's a special case; full rhyme between two or more words within the same line of verse.
What is a masculine rhyme? It is a rhyme that matches only one syllable, usually at the end of the respective lines, usually stressed.
What is a feminine rhyme? It is a rhyme that matches two or more syllables, usually at the end of the respective lines, usually unstressed.
What is a triple rhyme? It is a rhyme involving three syllables.
What is a full rhyme? The exact consonance of phonemes in the rhyming syllables.
What is a rich rhyme? It's a rhyme between words or syllables that are identical sounds.
What is an identical rhyme? It is a rhyme formed by the repetition of the same word.
What kind of rhyme is a vowel rhyme and how is it defined? It is a near rhyme and it is a rhyme in which the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words.
What kind of rhyme is a 'consonance at the end of two lines' and how is it defined? It is a near rhyme and a congruence between consonants only.
What kind of rhyme is a pararhyme and how is it defined? It is a near rhyme and a special case of consonance; initial and final consonants are repeated but the vowel is varied.
What is an eye rhyme? It the use of homographs (written in the same way but pronounced differently) as rhyme words.
What is a historical rhyme? It uses rhyme words that used to be, but are no longer, consonant, owing to changes in pronunciation.
What is a mosaic rhyme? It is the division of one of the rhyme words into more than one word.
What is a broken rhyme? It is a rhyme created by dividing a words at the line break => run-on line
What is alliteration? It is the succession of words with the same initial sound or succession of accented syllables with the same consonant or consonantal group?
What is consonance? It is the congruence of consonants short of alliteration; repetition of a sequence of two or more consonant, but with change in the intervening vowel.
What is assonance? It is the congruence between vowel sounds only.
What is onomatopoeia? It is the use of words to intimate sounds.
What is an anaphora? It is the repetition of a word or a group of words at the beginning of successive clauses or lines of verse.
What is an epiphora? It is the repetition of a word or a group of words at the end of successive clauses or lines of verse.
What is an epanalepsis? It is the repetition of words in close succession or after other intervening words.
What is an anadiplosis? It is the repetition of the end of the preceding clause/line of verse at the beginning of the next.
What is a polyptoton? It is the repetition of a word in different inflected forms.
What is the figura etymologica? It is the repetition of a root in different forms.
What is a synonym? It is the repetition by the replacement of one word with another of the same meaning.
What is a parallelism? It is the succession of clauses or sentences of the same structure.
What is a chiasmus? It is the reversal of structures in successive clauses.
What is an asyndeton? It is the succession of words or phrases without conjoining words.
What is a polysyndeton? It is the succession of words or phrases linked by conjoining words.
What is an inversion? It is the reversal of normal word order.
What is a hysteron proteron? It is the reversal of the logical succession of events.
What is an ellipsis? It is the omission of sentence components?
What is an aposiopesis? It is the abrupt cessation before the end of an utterance?
What is a zeugma? It is the application of one verb to more than one object in different senses.
What is a simile? It is an overt comparison.
What is a metaphor? It is a covert comparison.
What different kinds of metaphors do you know? Concretizing metaphor, metaphors which link inanimate and animate fields, anthropomorphizing metaphors, synaesthetic metaphors
What is a symbol? It evokes a concrete phenomenon which points to abstract, often general and ambiguous meanings. It is a sign which enfolds meaning beyond its actual/literal meaning.
What is an allegory? It transforms a general, abstract concept into a concrete image, person or story.
Created by: 1811804994