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clinical serology

aggluntination and precipitation

antigen and antibody= clumping
What is indirect or passive agglutination? Antigen affixed ot absorbed to the particle surface (particles are coated with antigens not normally found on their surfaces)
What is hemagglutination? use of RBC's; not the antigen of rbc's themselves but the passively attached antigens that are bound by antibody.
What are some of the inert particles? latex, charcoal, clay, glass, gold,
What happenes in both direct and indirect agglutination? the biological fluid is tested for the presence of antibodies that will bind to the antigen
What is direct or active agglutination? The antigen is an intrinsic component of particle. Antigens found naturally on a particle.
What is reverse agglutination? the biologicalfluid is tested for the presence of antigen, and so the antibody is a component of the particle
What is reverse passive agglutination? Antibody is attached to the carrier particle instead of the antigen.
coagglutination( direct bacterial agglutination) Binding of specfic antibodies to surface antigens of bacteria causes bacteria to clump in visible aggregates.
Quality of results depends on: A:time of incubation,B:relative concentration of antibody or antigen, C:avidity of antigen conjugated to carrier, D:conditions of test environment( temp,pH & protein concentration)
What is sensitization? first stage is physical attachment of antibody molecules to antigens
What is the zeta potential? It is the potential around the rbc created by the negative charges of the sialic acid int he membrane of the cells.
what is lattice formation? the 2nd stage; cross-links between sensitized paricles & antibodies resulting in aggregation (much slower process than sensitization phase)
Graded agglutination reactions gently resuspend cell button and grade agglutination from 0(neg) to 4+, 2. hemolysis, 3.rouleaux formation-pseudoagglutination that can disperse by adding a few drops of saline.
Created by: lesliederby