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Binary Numbers

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 224
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 240
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 248
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 252
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 254
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255
Class A 1 - 126 , 8 network | 24 host
Class B 128 - 191 , 16 network | 16 host
Class C 192 - 223 , 24 network | 8 host
Valid Subnet - if 1. no IP subnet-zero command in configuration 2. Classful Protocal - RIPv1, IGRP = (2 raised to the number of subnet bits)-2
Valid Subnet if 1. IP Subnet -zero is in configuration 2. VLSM "Variable-Length Subnet Masking 3. Classless Protocal- RIPv2 , EIGRP, OSPF = (2 raised to the number of subnet bits)
Valid Hosts on a subnet = (2 raised to number of host bits)-2 because can't use 0 or 255 Network or Broadcast
Boolean AND If both bits are 1 the AND is 1 Everything else is 0
The smallest amount of host addresses possible. What mask should you use? /30 , 252 = 11111100 2 host bits -> (2 raised to the 2nd)-2 = 2 usable hosts
OSI Model Layer 7 - Application Layer 6 - Presentation Layer 5 - Session Layer 4 - Transport Layer 3 - Network Layer 2 - Data Link Layer 1 - Physical
Layer 7 Application
Layer 6 Presentation
Layer 5 Session
Layer 4 Transport
Layer 3 Network
Layer 2 Data Link
Layer 1 Physical
Application Layer End users interact with the network. Authentication runs at Layer 7. Protocols that require an end user to enter a request
Layer 7 Protocols SMTP POP3 Telnet HTTP FTP SNMP
Presentation Layer Answers question "How should this data be presented?" Encryption layer 4 Tasks: 1. Compatibility with OS 2. Proper encapsulation of data for network transmission 3. Data formatting (ascii, binary) 4. Data encryption, compression, translation
Presentation Layer file types JPEG, ASCII, GIF, MPEG, MIDI, EBCDIC, TIFF
Session Layer Manager of two way communication between two hosts creates, maintains, tears down session
Transport Layer Establish logical end to end connection TCP, UDP
Two Transport Methods TCP, UDP (also SPX - Novell)
TCP Connection-oriented
UDP Connectionless
As data passes downward through the OSI model, it is encapsulated into various formats. What is the correct order Segment, Packet, Frame, Bit
At which OSI Model is a logical path created between two host systems? Network
Copper UTP Ethernet Distance 100 Meters
Fiber Optic Not susceptible to electrical interference
Common UDP Services and ports 53 DNS - name inquiry (tcp for regional transmission) 69 TFTP 161 SNMP
Bridges and switches Operate at layer 2 - Processing and forwarding frames from the data-link layer Bridges are software based, switches are hardware switches have more ports than bridges Both forward framed based on MAC addresses
Network Layer -------------- IP addresses Packets Routing ---------- Transport Layer ---------------- Windowing UDP Segments
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) By default, the switch with the lowest MAC address in switching network will be root-bridge
WAN operates at which layers of OSI Layer 1 Physical Layer 2 Data Link occasionally - Layer 3 (if need to choose 3)
Full Duplex Ethernet can provide higher throughput than can half-duplex Ethernet of the same bandwidth
Full Duplex requirements P2P Link - point to point connection Both nodes support Full-Duplex Close conflict detection (CSMA/CD)
Typical characteristics of VLANs Connectivity between VLANs requires a Layer 3 device Each VLAN uses a separate address space A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN
Roles of devices in a WAN A CSU/DSU terminates a digital local loop A modem terminates an analog local loop A router is commonly considered a DTE device
Different VLANs can't communicate with each other without a layer three router or Layer 3 switch then connect sub-interface on the router to the switch. Establish trunking links to achieve communications of devices on different VLANs
When using VLANs in networks with multiple switches, you need to use VLAN trunking between the switches
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) proprietary Cisco protocol to collect information about both locally attached and remote devices. Can gather hardware and protocol information about neighbor devices. Useful for troubleshooting and documenting
A switch is a multiport bridge Bridges and switches learn MAC addresses by examining the source MAC address of each frame received.
ARP Address Resolution Protocol Layer 2 Broadcast request for MAC address Unicast response from the host in question ARP cache is built on each host
How a switch handles broadcast Forwards a copy to every port accept the one the broadcast came in on
Switches, Routers and ARP Switches forward, By default - Routers don't
Routers and Broadcasts Accept them Generate Will not forward
Proxy ARP Rules to Remember 1. The source and destination MAC addresses will only change when routers are involved, that that's when Proxy ARP has to step in 2.The source and destination IP addresses do not change, period.
4 things host needs to know to transmit data 1. What is my IP 2. What is my network mask 3. What are the IP addresses of the DNS servers 4. What's my default gateway
DHCP offer 1. The IP address offered to the client 2. The network mask offered to the client 3. The length of the lease 4. The IP address of the DHCP server making the offer
ROM Stores the router's bootstrap startup, operating system software, and power-on diagnostic software(POST)
Flash Memory IOS images held here Flash is erasable and reprogrammable ROM Retained on reload
RAM stores operational information such as routing tables and the running configuration.Ram is lost at power down
NVRAM Non-volatile Ram holds the router's startyp configuration file. contents not lost at power down.
Three Way HandShake - definition Negotiation between two devices regarding rules for data transmission
3 way Hand Shake - How it works 1. sender -> transmit segment with sync (SYN) bit set 2.Recipient - > responds w\ SYN\ACK bits set (acknowledgement) 3. Sender -> responds with ACK - 3 way complete 2.
FIN bit used in TCP to bring the channel down when complete
TCP Data detection and Recovery 1. Send -> Sequence Number 2. Ack number < - Response (ACK is next sequence number expected) 3. Send sees the ACK and resends any lost segments
Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission (PAR) UDP - no Sequence #'s or ACK 1. Send -> transmits (starts ACK timer) 2. ACK <- responds 3. If timer expires with recieving ACK, Sender -> re-transmits data
Windowing TCP only Amount of data a sender can transmit before waiting for an ACK Recipient determines window size No errors - will increase window size
Sliding Window Dynamic adjustment of the window size to reduce errors
Multiplexing Mixing of data streams
Socket IP address + Port # (IP, Transport Protocol, Port) 10.1.12:69
FTP Port 20, 21
SSH (Secure Shell)port 22
Telnet port 23
DHCP port UDP 67, 68
TFTP port UDP 69
SNMP port UDP 161
DNS Port UDP and TCP 53
Private Mail Systems Port UDP and TCP 24
VOIP ports UDP 16384 - 32767
NTP (Network Time Protocol) port UDP 123
Application Layer Telnet, FTP, POP3, SMTP, SNMP, End user and or data input is involved
Presentation Layer Presenting Data
Session Layer Manager of the connection
Transport Layer TCP and UDP operate here. Positive Acknowledgement and retransmission. Data is placed into segments Flow control, Windowing, ACKs, anything TCP
Network Layer IP addresses added Used to create a logical path from A -> B Routing - choosing the path Data broken into Packets
Data Link Layer MAC addresses Frame Check Sequence Value - used for error detection - but not correction Data broken into Frames
Physical Layer Hubs and repeaters, cables, Data broken into bits
Data format top to bottom Data - Application, Presentation, Session Segment - Transport Packet - Network Frame - Data link Bit - Physical
TCP and UDP common fields Checksum Source Port Destination Port