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Fat-sol vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E, K

Fat-soluble vitamins require what for absorption? Bile
Which body system do the fat-soluble vitamins travel through prior to entering the blood stream? Lymphatic
What are the fat-soluble vitamins protein carriers called? Chylomicrons
Where are fat-soluble vitamins mainly stored in the body? (2) Liver & Adipose tissue
What is the precursor of vitamin A? Beta-carotene
Name the 3 forms (retinoids) of vitamin a in the body Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic Acid
Vitamin A derived from animals provide retinyl esters at are readily digested & absorbed as __________? Retinol
Vitamin A derived from plants provide ___________? Carotenoids (some of which have vitamin A activity)
Beta-carotene can be split to form ___________ in the intestine & liver. Retinol
Which has better absorption: Retinoids or carotinoids? Retinoids
How many micrograms of beta-carotene are need to form 1 microgram of Vitamin A? 12
What is the special transport protein for vitamin A? Retinol-binding protein (RBP)
Name 3 of retinol's main functions Reproduction, major transport & storage form of vitamin A
Name 2 of retinal's main functions Vision, its the intermediate between the reaction of retinol into retinoic acid
Name 3 of retinoic acid's main functions regulates cell differentiation, growth & embryonic development
can vitamin protect the skin from sunlight? Yes
Vitamin A maintains the integrity of __________ ____________. Mucous membranes
Name 4 of retinol's roles when it comes to reproduction Sperm development, foetal development, growth & bone growth
Is retinol involved in the remodeling or the dismantling of bone? Dismantling
Beat-carotene acts as 2 things.... Antioxidant & Precursor to Vitamin A
Is all beta-carotene converted to vitamin A? No
How long would it take for a vitamin A deficiency to become apparent? One - two years (stored in the liver)
Name the 2 most important results of a vitamin A deficiency Infectious diseases & Blindness
Why does night blindness occur? No retinal in the back of the eye
Why does total blindness occur? No retinal in the front of the eye (cornea)
Which bone cells destroy bone during growth? Osteoclasts
Which bone cells build bone during growth? Osteoblasts
Name the common deaths associated with the infectious diseases contracted due to a vitamin A deficiency, usually in 3rd world countries(3) Measles, pneumonia & severe diarrhoea
Name the first detectable sign of a vitamin A deficiency Night blindness
Blindness Xerophthalmia
Name the skin condition resulting from a vitamin A deficiency Keratinization
Name 2 important signs of vitamin A toxicity Bone defects (fractures + osteoporosis) & Birth defects (teraogenic)
Liver, Fish liver, oils, milk & milk products, butter & eggs are all good sources of which vitamin? Vitamin A
Is skim milk a good source of vitamin A? No, vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, therefore it is lost when the milk is skimmed
What will improve the bioavailability of beta-carotene? The fat accompanying the meal
Xanthophylls are what? Red & yellow pigemnts
What is the plant version of vitamin D? Ergocalciferol, or vitamin D2
What is the animal version of vitamin D? Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3
How long does it take the body to convert vitamin D from the skin in the body? 36 hours
Two hydroxylation reactions (adding of OH groups) must occur before vitamin D can become fully active, which 2 organs do this? First the liver & then the kidneys
Diseases of the liver & kidney can interfere with the activation of which vitamin, causing symptoms of a deficiency? Vitamin D
Name the active hormone version of vitamin D Calcitriol
Vitamin D has a binding protein that carries it to which 3 target organs? Intestines, kidneys & bones
Name the 3 vitamins involved in bone health Vitamins D, K & A
Name the 4 minerals involved in bone health Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, & flouride
What is vitamins D's special role in bone growth? Maintains blood concentrations of calcium & phosphorus
Vitamin D raises blood concentration of Ca+ & K+ by enhancing what 3 mechanisms? (think - intestines, kidneys & bones) Absorption of the GIT, reabsorption by the kidneys, enhances mobilisation from the bones into the blood
Name 4 things that can contribute to a vitamins D deficiency? Dark skin, breastfeeding without supplementation, lack of sunlight, & not using fortified milk
In a vitamin D deficiency, production of the protein that binds calcium slows, thus a vitamin D deficiency creates a __________ deficiency Calcium deficiency
Name 3 conditions associate with a vitamin D deficiency Rickets, osteoporosis, & ostemalacia
Excess vitamin D raises the concentration of blood calcium leading to which condition? Kidney stones
Is alpha-tocopherol the only compound with vitamin E activity? Yes
what is the best fat-soluble vitamin antioxidant? Vitamin E
What is the main trick of vitamin E as an antioxidant? To stop the chain reaction of free radicals producing more free radicals
Vitamin E protects the oxidation of what? Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Explain 2 ways vitamin E reduces the risk of heart disease? By protecting the LDL's against oxidation & reducing inflammation
Vitamin D deficiency is rare, but is usually associated with diseases of _________________ ? Fat malabsorption diseases (such as cystic fibrosis)
Name the classic sign of vitamin E deficiency Erythrocyte haemolysis - the red bloods cells break open and spill their contents (seen mostly in premature infants that are born before the transfer of vitamin E takes place in the last weeks of pregnancy)
Name the 2 signs of vitamin E deficiency Erythrocyte haemolysis & Neuromuscular dysfunction (involving the spinal cord & retina of the eye)
Name 2 conditions that respond to vitamin E treatment Fibrocystic Breast Disease & Intermittent Claudication
A person who consumes large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids need more of which vitamin? Vitamin E
Vegetable oils & wheatgerm oil is a good source of which vitamin? Vitamin E
Vitamin E is destroyed by which 2 things? Heat & oxidation
Name the 2 vitamins that can be obtained from a non-food source Vitamin D - sunlight. Vitamin K - intestinal bacteria
vitamin K's main role Blood clotting
Vitamin K Phylloquinone
Vitamin K is essential for activation of several blood clotting proteins. Which disease results when these proteins are lacking? Haemorrhagic Disease
Does vitamin K participate in the synthesis of bone proteins? Yes, with out it there would be a low bone density
Which vitamin reduces the effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs? Vitamin K
Which vitamin augments the effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs? Vitamin E
Which age group is vulnerable to Haemmorrhagic disease? Newborns - They are born sterile & have no intestinal bacteria
Green vegetables, vegetable oils & GI bacteria are all good sources of which vitamin? Vitamin K
Vitamin E protects which vitamin from oxidation? Vitamin A
Created by: 100001719771502
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