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Computer Intro

Computer an electronic device that runs under a control of instructions stored in its memory, that can accept data, manipulate data according to specific rules, produce results and store them for future use.
General Operations / Information Processing Cycle Input, Process, Output, Storage, Communication
Input Devices allows data/instructions to be entered into computer
Output Devices conveys information to the user
System Unit Box-like case containing electronic components of computer that are used to process data
Motherboard a circuit board that has many circuitry lines and components
Storage holds data, instructions and information for future use permanently
Communication enables a component to transmit and receive data, instructions and information to an from one or more computers
Why are computers powerful? Speed, Reliability & Consistency, Accuracy, Storage, Communications
Garbage In, Garbage Out The accuracy of a computers output depends on the accuracy of the computers input
Internet collection of networks that connect millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions and individuals
Program a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it
Installing the process of setting up the software to work with computer and hardware components
Run to use the program
Load to call the program form storage media and place it in memory
Execute to carry out the instructions
GUI when we interact with the software using text, graphics and icons
CPU brain of the computer and oversees everything that computer does
Primary Storage RAM
Secondary Storage HDD, Removable Disk, CD/DVD, Floppy disk
Memory very fast storage media to save data
RAM temporarily stores information
ROM Permanent type of storage and data cannot be modified
BIOS Type of ROM that establishes communication when the computer is first turned on
Expansion Slots sockets build into the motherboard for expanded capabilities and components to be installed
Dot Matrix Printer uses ink ribbon and only prints in black and white. It prints by striking pins against ink ribbon
Ink Jet Printer uses ink cartridge and can print in black and white and colour. The printer shoots out tiny drops of ink onto paper
Laser Printer uses in toner and prints in black and white and colour. Nothing happens when water spills
Hand-held scanner used at departmental stores to scan barcode. Eg: Scanning Guns
Flatbed Scanner scans only loose, single pages and looks like a printer
Sheet-Fed Scanner Scan many pages at one time and looks and acts like a copy machine
Software Written coded commands that tells the computer what tasks to perform
System Software software that manages and controls the operations of the computer and its devices and acts as a medium between hardware and software (OS & Utility Prog.)
Operating System coordinates all activities among computer hardware resources and contains instructions that allows user to run application software
Utility Program allows users to perform maintenance type tasks related to managing a computer, its devices and programs, and are usually included in the OS.
Application Software a computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform
User Interface controls how the user enters data and instructions as well as how information displays on the screen. It acts as a medium between the user and the computer
Command-Line Interface allows a user to type a command or press special keys on the keyboard such as function keys to enter data and instructions. (CMD, DOS)
Menu-driven Interface an interface that allows users to navigate by choosing options form a list. The applications are created based on DOS. (BIOS)
Graphical User Interface Interacts with the user by using menus and visual images such as icons, buttons and animations (Windows Aero)
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Is a flash memory that provides the interface for major hardware components of the computer with the OS and most important role is to load the OS.
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) an integrated circuit located in the motherboard. Uses battery power to retain information when computer is turned off and provides detailed info particular to the system
Power-On-Self-Test (POST) checks various hardware components in the system to make sure everything is working properly. Results of POST are compared to data in CMOS chip and if there is an error, computer may display error messages or cease operation
How does a computer boot up? ON > Electrical signals reach processor > Processor finds BIOS > BIOS executes tests > BIOS search for system files > Kernel of OS loads into RAM > OS loads config. and displays desktop
BIOS executes tests BIOS checks CMOS Setup > Load device drivers > Initialize registers and power management > Performs POST > Displays system settings > Determines which device should start first > Initializes bootstrap sequence
Recovery Disk / Boot Disk A disk that contains system files that will start the computer when the computer is unable to boot
Multitasking working on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time
Multiprocessing tow or more processors running the same program at the same time
Multi-user Enables two or more users to run different programs at the same time
Fault-tolerant computers Computer continues to operate when one of its components fail. Has duplicate components such as processors, memory and HDD
Memory Management the usage of virtual memory where a portion of the hard disk is allocated to function as RAM to optimize the use of RAM
Cross-Platform Application an application that runs identically on multiple OS/platforms
Booting the process of starting or restarting the computer
Cold Boot turning on the computer that has been powered off
Warm boot restarting a computer that is powered on
Jobs an operation that the processor manages. OS schedules jobs only for processor
Spooling the process of sending print jobs to buffer or temporary storage instead of sending it directly to the printer.
Device Driver Program that tells the OS how to communicate with the device
Created by: narrthine



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