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EKU summer urines

QuestionAnswer
Normal 24 hour urine volume 500-1800 mL
having a urine osmolality of approximately 300 mOsm/kg diuresis
the excretion of excessive amounts of urine >3L perday polyuria
tot urin volume of less than 400 mL perday oliguria
no urine is excreted from the body anuria
bilirubin to biliverdin, hemoglobin to methemoglobin and urobilinogen to urobilin are all reasons for changes in this characteristic of urine color
due to bacterial proliferation and solute precipitation clarity of urine can be decreased
at room temperature pH is increased due to what bacterial decomposition of urea to ammonia
at room temperature pH is increased due to what bacterial or yeast conversion of glucose to metabolic acids
at room temperature glucose is decreased due to what cellular or bacterial glycolysis
at room temperature ketones decrease due to what two reasons bacterial metabolism of acetoacetate to acetone and volatilization of acetone
why is bilirubin decreased at room temperature photooxidation to biliverdin and hydrolysis of free bilirubin
at room temperature why is urobilinogen decreased oxidation of urobilin
at room temperature why would nitrite in urine be increased bacterial production following collection
at room temperature why would nitrite be decreased conversion to nitrogen
at room temperature what would happen to RBC, WBC, and casts disintegration of cellular and formed elements
at room temperature why would bacteria be increased due to proliferation following collection
normal urine color yellow
dilute urine color colorless or light yellow
concentrated urine color amber
bilirubin in urine color dark amber to orange
urobilin in urine color amber to orange
biliverdin in urine color dark amber
hemoglobin in urine color red, pink, or brown
myoglobin in urine color red or brown
beets in urine color red
fuscin alanine dye in urine color red
methemoglobin in urine color brown
homogentistic acid in urine color brown to black
melanin in urine color black
reasons for green or blue urine indican, chlorophyll, pseudomonas, dyes and medications
what is the normal clarity of urine clear
what does clarity depend on in urine amount of constituents in the urine
Normal specific gravity 1.002-1.035
pKa change of pretreated polyelectrolyte is the principle of what urine test specific gravity
a duel indicator test in which substances act as either proton acceptors or proton donors is what urine test pH
What is normal pH for urine 4.5-8.0
this test involves catalase and peroxidase activity of heme in which myoglobin and rbc case oxidation of chromogen Blood
what is normal result of blood test negative
this test involves the coupling of an ester to form an aromatic compound with a diazonium salt to form a purple color leukocyte esterase
what is the normal result for leukocyte esterase negative
this test uses para-arsanilic acid and tetrahydrobenzo(h)-quinolin-3-ol and coupleswith diazonium salt nitrite
what is the norm value for nitrite in urine neg
this test involves citrate buffer at pH2; tetrabromphenol blue as an indicator and is based on the error of indicators protein
what is the normal value for protein in urine negative
this test involves glucose oxidase, peroxidase, o-toluidine, potassium iodide or aminopropylcarazol as a two step reaction with the goal of oxidizing chromogen glucose
what is the norm value for glucose in urine negative
this test is called legal's test and uses the reagent sodium nitroprusside ketones
what is the norm value for ketones in urine negative
this reaction again is a diazonium salt coupling reaction in which the reagents are dichloroanilin or dichlorobenzene-diazonium tetrafluoroborate bilirubin
what is the normal value for bilirubin in urine negative
this reaction has the reagents of dimethylamino-benzaldehyde urobilinogen
what is the norm value for urobilinogen in the urine .1-1.0
Which chemical urine tests are affected by ascorbic acid blood, nitrite, glucose, bilirubin
urobilinogen can have a positive reaction if this is substance is in the urine ehrlich's reagent
Which chemical urine tests are affected by soaps and oxidizing agents blood and glucose
what can cause errors in specific gravity proteins, glucose, urea, pH and ketones
What is the confirmatory test for protein SSA
What is the confirmatory test for carbohydrates other than glucose clinitest
what is the confirmatory test for ketones acetest
what is the confirmatory test for bilirubin ictotest
what is the confirmatory test for porphyrins watson schwartz
which confirmatory test uses ehrlick diazo reagen watson schwartz
what confirmatory test is based on the coupling of a unique solid diazonium salt with bilirubin in an acid medium ictotest
what confirmatory test involves a purple color formed with nitroprusside in the presence of glycine acetest
what confirmatory test involves copper sulfate reacting with reducing substances producing heat and cuprous oxide clinitest
what confirmatory test involves acidification causing precipitation of protein SSA
What can affect the results of an SSA test turbid urine or polyuria false negatives
sulfa drugs can affect what confirmatory test clinitest
low specific gravity can cause a false positive for what confirmatory test clinitest
these cells originate from the lining of the vaginal tract or lower portions of the male and female urethra squamous epithilial
these cells originate from the renal pelvis to the proximal two thirds of the urethra transitional epithelial
these cells originate in the renal tubules renal tubule cells
this cell is from vascular fat degeneration oval fat body
these cells are often seen in bacterial infections or nonbacterial disorders WBC
these cells are due to WBC that lyse or swell Glitter cells
these cells originate from renal bleeding or glomerulonephritis RBC
30-40 um with abundant cytoplasm with small central nucleus squamous
12-20 um round or pear shapped with centrally located nucleus transition
20-60 um oblong or round to oval and contain eccentric nucleus renal tubular
tains with sudan black and have a maltese cross shape Oval fat body
10-15 um contains distinct nucleus WBC
brownian movement of their internal granules produce sparkles glitter cells
7-10 um biconcave disks without nucleus RBC
an increas number of these indicates acute tubular necrosis from heavy metals or drug toxicity and all renal disease renal tubular
these indicate glomerular dysfunction with renal tubular cell death oval fat bodies
these indicate an infection or inflammation of the genitourinary tract WBC
when a large number or misshapen cells indicate renal transplant rejection, acute tubular necrosis, ischemic injury to the kidney or renal carcinoma transition
when these cells are covered with bacteria they are called clue cells squamous
amorphous urates, calcium oxalate, cholesterol are crystals found in what type of urine acidic to neutral
leucine, tyrosine, cystine, and bilirubin are crystals found in what type of urine acidic
amorphous phosphates, triple phosphates, calcium carbonate, ammonium biurate are crystals that are found in what type of urine neutral to alkaline
calcium phosphate crystals are found in what type of urine acidic, neutral, and alkaline
This crystal can be seen in urine of someone who has ingested ethylene glycol calcium oxalate
this crystal can be seen in gout patients uric acid
leucine and tryosine are found in the urines of people with what rare liver disease aminoaciduria
cystine crystals are found in urines of people with what cystinosis or cystinuria
cholesterol is found in urine due to what lipiduria
these crystals look like an envelope calcium oxalate
these crystals look like a lemon uric acid
this crystals are dark yellow spheres with concentric circles leucine
these crystals are colorless to yellow with fine delicate needles in clusters or sheaves tyrosine
these crystals are colorless hexagonal plates often layered cystine
these crystals often are flat rectangles with notched corners cholesterol
these christals are yellow brown fine needles or granules that form clusters bilirubin
these crystals resemble coffin lids triple phosphate
these christals are dark yellow to brown and resemble thorny apples ammonium biurate
these crystals are ovten thin prisms in rosetts or stellar forms calcium phosphate
these crystals are often granular spheres or dumbbells calcium carbonate
these are normally colorless homogeneous protein matrix with rounded ends that vary in shape and size hyaline casts
Casts are made out of what protein tamm-horsfall
this protein matrix is filled with degenerating cells, amorphous chrystals or bacteria, is normally colorless to yellow and varies in size and shape granular cast
this protein matrix is filled with red blood cells often many free red cells in same field of view RBC cast
this protein matrix is filled with renal epithelial cells epithelial cast
these casts are homogeneous with a waxy thick appearance often with blunt uneven brittle looking edges waxy/broad
this protein matrix contains oval fat bodies fatty cast
these casts occur after strenuous exercise, stress, inflamation of the urogenital tract hyaline
these cast occur during urine flow stasis, urogenital tract infections strenuous exercise or stress granular
these casts occure in glomerulonephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, and after strenuous exercise RBC
These cast occur due to renal tubular damage epithelial
these casts occur due to tubular obstruction, urine flow stasis, severe nephron damage, and nephritic syndrome waxy and broad
these casts occur during nephritic syndrome, renal tubular cell death, severe crushing injury fatty
these cells found in urine can be rods, cocci, chains of cocci bacteria
these cells found in urine can be seen after dilute acetic acid is added to the urine to lyse rbcs yeast
these are 8-20 um with undulating flagella trichomonas
this is threadlike structures with low refractive index found in urine with no significance mucus
this renal disorder has a rapid onset of fever, malaise, and oliguria, normally post bacterial infection, RBC and RBC casts seen acute glomerulonephritis
this renal disorder has a pronounced proteinuria and is due to systemic disease, all types of casts are seen as well as oval fat bodies nephritic syndrome
this renal disorder is an infection of the renal tubules, interstitium and renal pelvis and all cell casts can be seen along with pyuria pyelonephritis
this is a microbial infection of the bladder cystitis
normal color of CSF colorless
CSF with a yellow color indicates bilirubin
CSF with a pink color indicates oxyhemoglobin
CSF with an orange color indicates oxyhemoglobin and bilirubin
CSF with a brown color indicates methemoglobin
the term xanthochromic means yellow color but in CSF can indicate any color
CSF normal clarity clear
Reasons for CSF to be turbid >200 WBC, >400 RBC, increased protein or microorganisms
Normal WBC for CSF 0-5 uL
WBC for bacterial infection in CSF >500
WBC for viral infection in CSF <100
WBC for mycobacterial infection in CSF <500
WBC for fungal infection in CSF <500
Normal CSF glucose 40-85 mg/dL
CSF glucose in bacterial infection <40
CSF glucose in viral infection normal
CSF glucose in mycobacterium infection <40
CSF glucose in fungal infection <40
Normal CSF protein 15-45 mg/dL
CSF protein in bacterial infection >250
CSF protein in viral infection <100
CSF protein in mycobacterial infection 50-500
CSF protein in fungal infection 25-500
Normal CSF lactate <35 mg/dL
CSF lactate in bacterial infection >35
CSF lactate in viral infection normal
CSF lactate in mycobacterial infection >35
CSF lactate in fungal infection >35
Cells found in normal CSF lymphocytes
CSF cells in bacterial infection neutrophils
CSF cells found in viral infection early-neutrophils late-lymphocytes
CSF cells found in mycobacterial infection lymphocytes
CSF cells found in fungal infection lymphocytes
this fluids origin is in the cavities of the body effusion
fluid volume between two membranes due to an alteration in the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure in the capillaries is what effusion
this fluid is between the parietal membrane and the visceral membrane serous
this is an ultrafiltrate of plasma and is produced and reabsorbed at a constant rate and allows for free movement of the organs serous fluid
this fluid surrounds the heart pericardial
this fluid is found in the abdominal cavity peritoneal
this fluid surrounds the lungs pleural
this fluid is found in the joints synovial
How are serous fluids collected paracentesis
how is pleural fluid collected thoracentesis
how is peritoneal fluid collected peritoneocentesis
how is pericardial fluid collected pericardiocentesis
how is synovial fluid colected arthrocentesis
this fluid is caused by increased hydrostatic pressure and a decreased oncotic pressure transudate
this fluid is caused by inflammation with an increased capillary permeability and a decreased lymphatic absorbion exudate
transudate color pale yellow
exudate color yellow, green, pink, red
transudate clarity clear
exudate clarity cloudy
transudate spontaneous clotting negative
exudate spontaneous clotting variable but mostly yes
transudate specific gravity <1.012
exudate specific gravity >1.012
transudate protein <2
exudate protein >2.9
transudate fluid serum ratio <.5
exudate fluid serum ratio >.5
transudate LD <60%
exudate LD >60%
transudate fluid to LD ratio <.6
exudate fluid to LD ratio >.6
transudate WBC <1000 pleural <300 peritoneal
exudate WBC >1000 pleural >500 peritoneal
transudate differential mononuclear cells
exudate differential early-neutrophils late-mononuclear cells
normal color of synovial fluid pale yellow
normal viscosity of synovial fluid high
Normal WBC of synovial fluid <200
What causes a non-inflammatory response in synovial fluid osteoarthritis
what causes an inflammatory response in synovial fluid RA and systemic disease
what causes an infectious response in synovial fluid microbes
What cause a crystal response in synovial fluid gout
what causes a hemorrhagic response in synovial fluid joint injury or tumor
what two synovial conditions have a low viscosity inflammatory and infectious
What is the specifications for a semen sample collection ejaculation after two days of abstinence not more than 7 days
how long should normal semen take for liquefaction 60 min or less
how long would an abnormal semen take for liquefaction more than 60 min
what is the normal volume of semen 2-5 mL
What is the normal cell count for semen 20-250 million
what is the normal morphology for semen 14% normal
what is the pH of semen 7.2-7.8
What does lecithin measure fetal lung maturity
what is the normal lecithin value for a mature fetal lung >2
What does phosphtidyl glycerol measure fetal lung maturity
What does the foam stability test measure fetal lung maturity
What is the normal value for a foam test of a mature fetal lung >.48
what does amniotic bilirubin measure HDN
What spectrophotometer setting for bilirubin 350 or 580
What is the normal amniotic bilirubin 10-30 ug/dL
What does alpha-fetoprotein measure neural tube defects
Created by: jnwells03