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Antibiotcs sanford

antibiotics and their modes of action

What are bactericidal antibiotics? Drugs that kill bacteria
What are bacteriostatic antibiotics? Drugs that inhibit the growth of bacteria, but do not immediately kill them
When are bactericidal antibiotics preferable to bacteriostatic antiobiotics Imunocompromised patients, infections that are immediately life-threatening and infections that are protected from the host's immuntiy (abscess)
What is MIC? Minimum inhibitory concentration: the lowest conentration of a drug that inhibits bacterial growth invitro (visual)
What is MBC? Minimum bactericidal concentration: the lowest concentration of drug that kills bacteria invitro (plated)
What is synergism? An effect when the action of combining two or more drugs is significantly greater than the sum of the drug separately
What is antagonism? An effect when the action of combining two or more drugs is significantly lower the sum of the drug separately
What are broad-spectrum antiobiotics? Drugs that affect several different classes of bacterial (gram positive and gram negatives for example)
What are narrow spectrum antiobiotics? Drugs that are effective against a few types of bacteria (gp or gn)
What four parts of the bacterial cell are common targets for antibacterial drugs? Cell walls, cell membranes, ribosomes, nucleic acid and biosynthetic enzymes
what structure do all penicillin-family antibiotics contain? Beta lactam ring
What are three organisms that produce b-lactamase? Staph aureus, Haemophilus influenza and bacteroides fragilis
How does the spectrum of the cephalosporins change from first through third generation? Increasing spactrum for gram negative bacteria and decreasing spactrum for gram positive bacteria
What is the spectrum of activity for each of the following: 1st generation cephalosporins? Gram positive only
2nd generation cephalosporins? Increasing activity against gram negative bacteria and variable activity against gram positive bacteria
3rd generation cephalosporins? Even more gram negative activity and even less gram positive activity
4th generation cephalosporins? Extended activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria
What is the main advantage of cephalosporins over the other penicillins? More resistant to beta lactamases
Which antibiotics target cell wall synthesis? Penicillins, vancomycin, bacitracin
What is the spactrum of activity for vacomycin? All gram positives including MRSA and enterococcus except VRE
What drugs target the 50s ribosomal subunit? Chloamphenical
What is the spectrum of activity for chloramphenicol? gram + and gram - anarobes
What is the toxicity of chloramphenicol? Bone marrow toxicity and grey baby syndrome
Which drugs target the 30s ribosomal submit? Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines
Are aminoglycosides bactericidal or bacteriostatic? Bactericidal
What is the spectrum of activity for aminoglycosides? Aerobic gram negative rods
Are tetracyclines bactericidal or bacteriostatic? Bacteriostatic
What are the side effects of tetracyclines? Bone deposition and discoloration, renal or hepatic toxicity, GI irritation, superinfections and teratogenic (deformaties) effects in fetus
What drugs target messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis? How? Rifampin, it inhibits RNA polymerase
What are the side effects of rifampin Hepatotoxicity and secretions are orange
What drugs target tetrahydrofolate syntheses (and therefore nucleotide synthesis)? Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
What is a common combination of these drugs? Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Why are these drugs usually given together? They have a synergistic effect
Created by: lesliederby