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Ch. 17 Patho

Blood and Lymphatic Disorders

Blood is the major transport system for oxygen, glucose, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes and cell wastes
Part of body’s defense mechanism carrying antibodies and white blood cells is Blood
55% of blood is made up of Water and dissolved solutes (plasma)
45% of blood is made up of Formed elements
A biconcave, unnucleated, flexible disc is RBC
All blood cells are formed in Red bone marrow
A hormone, originates from the kidney, stimulates erythrocyte production in red bone marrow Erythropoietin
Oxygen molecules attach to what on a hemoglobin molecule, giving it a red color Heme
The Pathology of multiple Myloma and Plasma Cell Myloma is? neoplastic disease, increased number plasma cells replace bone marrow and erode bone, blood cell production impaired, multiple tumors with bone destruction
Signs and symptoms of Multiple Myloma and Plasma cell Myloma are? frequent infection, pain related to bone, pathologic fx, anemia, bleeding, kidney function impaired
Oxygenated blood that is found in arterial blood is Oxyhemoglobin
Deoxygenated blood that is found in venous blood is Deoxyhemoglobin
Destruction of RBC's is Hemolysis
Leukopoiesis production WBC stimulated by production of cells, macrophages and T lymphocytes (colony stimulating factors – CSF)
What is the last stage of Hemostasis Coagulation
The first stage of Hemostasis is Vascular spasm
Clot formation requires Factor 11 (Prthrombin) and Factor 1 (Fibrin)
A disorder caused by a decrease in HgB and Erythrocytes Anemia
Most common anemia due to an iron defecit is Iron Deficency Anemia
Manifestations that you would commonly see in people with iron defeciency anemia are Palesness, Fatigue, Irritability, brittle hair and ridged nails
Malabsorption of B12 or Folic Acid results in Pernicious Anemia
Vitamin B12 must have what present in order to be absorbed Intrinsic Factor
Most significant sign of Pernicious Anemia is Enlarged, red tongue
Aplastic Anemia is related to An impairment of bone marrow leading to a loss of stem cells that results in decreased RBC's and WBC's
Three ways to treat Aplastic Anemia would be to Replace the bone marrow, a blood transfusion and removal of bone marrow suppressants
Treatment for Multiple Myloma and Plasma cell Myloma are? chemo, analgesics, blood transfusions
80% of Non Hodgkins disease are made up of these lymphocytes B-Lymphocytes
Non Hodgkin lymphoma is Characterized by? Multiple node involvement scattered throughout the body, non-organized pattern widespread metastases
A genetic effect that causes and excessive destruction of RBC's is Hemolytic Anemia
A type of Hemolytic Anemia that is common in the Middle East and indvidiuals from Africa is Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia is An inherited charactersitic that causes formation of abnormal HgB
The main problem in Sickle Cell Anemia is obstruction of small blood vessels result in thrombus formation and repeated multiple infarctions, necrosis throughout
The treatment for hodgkins disease is? Radiation,Chemotherapy,Surgery
The signs and sypmtoms of hodgkins disease are? Lymph node, cervical enlarged, painless and nontender Splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes General signs ca, wt loss, anemia, fever, night sweats, fatigue Generalized pruritus Recurrent infection
Where is hodgkins found and what lymphocytes does it effect? Malignancy initially involves single lymph node, neck and spread to adjacent nodes in order fashion, then to organs and it causes T-lymphocytes defectiveness and lymphocyte decrease.
Five common manifestations of Sickle Cell Anemia are Jaundice, Splenomegaly, CHF, delayed growth, and severe anemia
The most common anemia around the world mainly affecting Mediterranian countries is Thalassemia
Thalassemia is a genetic defect resulting in 1 or more genes for HgB is missing
The main treatment for Thalassemia is A blood transfusion
Low levels of Erythropoietin, and an Increased production of RBC leads to Polycythemia
Blood clotting disorders occur from Spontaneous bleeding/excessive bleeding with minor trauma
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation happens when excessive bleeding and excessive clotting occur
Release of Thromboplastin in DIC is from OB Complications and/or gram negative infections
Three problems that impair blood clottin are Defecit of platelets, lack of Vitamin K, and liver failure
How can pernicious anemia be caused by chronic gastritis Gastritis leads to less secretion of intrinsic factor in the stomach so B12 cannot be absorbed
Two signs of DIC are decreased BP and thrombocytopenia
Why does severe bone pain occur with leukemia Proliferation of malignat cells in the bone marrow causes pressure on nerves
What are the 3 major plasma proteins Albumin, globulins and fibrinogen
What is the importance of the shape of an erythrocyte Allows easy movement through capillary walls
At what age does Sickle Cell Anemia first show up 12 months
CSF and Interleukin 3 cause An increase in WBC production
Leukemia consists of one or more WBC present as undifferentiated, immature, nonfunctional cells (blasts) that multiply uncontrollable in bone marrow
Acute Leukemia higher proportion immature blast cells, marked signs,abrupt onset, longer prognosis
Chronic Leukemia high proportion mature cells, insidious onset, mild signs, better prognosis
Common manifestations of Leukemia are Bone pain, weight loss, increased infections,and enlarged spleen, liver and nodes
Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant are treatments for Leukemia
Malignancy to a single lymph node, defective T lymphocytes and decreased lympocyte count are related to what dieases Hodgkins Disease
Main signs and symptoms for Hodgkins are Enlarged painless lymph nodes and splenomegaly
Malignancy to mulitple nodes throughout the body, defective B lymphocytes and non organized metases are realated to Non Hodgkins Disease
Multiple Myeloma is an increased number plasma cells replace bone marrow and erode bone and blood cell production is impaired
Created by: cdanella



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