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Ch. 6 Patho

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid- Base Imbalances

Who has the greatest percentage of body water a man, a woman, or an infant Infant
What are the water compartments of the body Intracellular Comparment (ICF) and Extracellular Compartment (ECF)
How is water lost through the body Urine, Feces, Skin and Lungs
Sources of water include Liquids, Solid foods, Cell metabolism
How does fluid circulate throughout the body Filtration and Osmosis
What pressures help move water between compartments Hydrostatic Pressure and Osmotic Pressure
What controls fluid balance The thirst mechanism, ADH, Aldosterone, ANP
What major hormone influences Sodium Aldosterone
What major hormones influence water Aldosterone and ADH
An excessive amount of fluid in the insterstitial compartment causes Edema
Edema causes swelling or enlargement of tissues, impaired movement and pitting
Any time water output exceeds water intake and causes a defecit what happens Dehydration occurs
Compensation for dehydration include increasing thirst, increasing heart rate, production of less urine
Dehydration causes weight loss, and excessive loss of electrolytes and proteins
Why are infants more susceptible to dehydration Becuase they lack fluid reserves and inability to retain water quickly
Sodium moves into the cells by means of the sodium potassium pump
Hyponatremia results from excessive sweating and vomiting, insufficent aldosterone, and excessive water intake
Effects of Hyponatremia are low sodium levels and a decrease in osmotic pressure in ECF from fluid shifts
An imbalance of sodium and water, insufficient ADH and loss of your thirst mechanism cause Hypernatremia
What are some effects of Hypernatremia Edema, increased thirst, weakness
Potassium is the major intracellular cation
Why are abnormal potassium levels dangerous because they can cause changes in cardiac conduction and contractions
Hypokalemia is caused by excessive aldosterone levels, excess loss from diarrahea, and diuresis
Major effects of Hypokalemia inclue Cardiac dysrythmias, decrease in muscle function and digestive tract motility
Three causes of Hyperkalemia are Aldosterone defecit, Potassium sparing diuretics, and leaking of potassium into ECF
Hyperkalemia effects include Cardiac dysrythmias, muscle weakness, fatigue
Calcium balance is controled by PTH and Calcitonin
Hypoparathyroidism, Increased pH, and Malabsorption cause Hypocalcemia
Muscle Twitching, Tetany, and Weakend heart contractions are effects of Hypocalcemia
Hypercalcemia is caused by Uncontrolled relase of calcium ions from bones, Hyperparathyroidism, and Increased calcium intake
Three major effects of Hypercalcemia include Depressed muscular activity, Interference of ADH function, and increased cardiac contractions
The major extracellular anion is Chloride
An increase in Hydrogen ions and a pH level lower than 7.4 results in Acidosis
A decrease in Hydrofen ions and a pH level greater than 7.4 results in Alkalosis
What is the normal range for blood pH 7.35- 7.45
The three mechanisms that control pH are Buffer systems, Respiratory system, and the Kidney
Most effective yet slowest pH control mechanism is The Kidney
Four major buffer pairs are Sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid system, Phosphate system, Hemoglobin System, and the protein system
The major ECF buffer system that is controlled by the respiratory system and kidneys is The bircbonate-carbonic acid system
An increase or decrease in carbon dioxide can lead to Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis
An increase or decrease in bicarbonate ions can lead to Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis is caused by Respiratory congestion and slow shallow respirations
Hyperventalion is a major cause of Respiratory Alkalosis
Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Renal Failure are causes of Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis is caused by Vomitting and excessive antacid intake
The ratio to be maintained between bicarbonate and carbonic acid is 20:1
What fluid makes up the higher proportion of body weight Intracellular
Functions of Sodium include Maintaing extracellular fluid volume, acid-base balance and metabolic processes.
A defecit of Vitamin D levels causes decreased calcium levels
Created by: cdanella