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Ch. 18- Patho

Cardiovascular Disorders

QuestionAnswerQuestionAnswer
Cardiac output (CO) Blood ejected by a ventricle in one minute Presence of artheromas in large blood vessels is a sign of what Atherosclerosis
Stroke volume (SV) Volume of blood pumped out of ventricle/contraction LDL Bad Cholesterol
Preload Amount of blood delivered to heart by venous return Good Cholesterol HDL
Afterload Force required to eject blood from ventricles Determined by peripheral resistance in arteries A deficit of oxygen to meet myocardial needs occurs from Angina Pectoris
ADH increases blood volume by H2O reabsorption through kidney, increasing blood volume Angina Pectoris treatment would be rest and administration of coronary dilators
Aldosterone increases blood volume by by increasing reabsorption of Na+ and H2O, increased blood volume increases BP Obstruction of the coronary artery causes what to happen Myocardial Infarction
Digoxin Treatment for heart failure Antidysrhythmic drug for atrial dysrhythmias Warning signs of a heart attack include Feeling of pressure in chest, Sudden shortness of breath, Anxiety
Atrial contraction depolarizes in P wave ECG measures what conductivity of heart
Ventricle repolarizations happens in what wave T wave What would be a good treatment for a myocardial infarction oxygen therapy
Ventricular contraction and Atrial Repolarization happens in what wave QRS Wave Coronary Heart Disease can lead to heart failure, serious arrhythmias, sudden death
What centers control heart rate and contractions cardiac center in medulla Deviation from normal cardiac rate or rhythm, from damage to conduction system or systemic Cardiac Arrythmias
Beta-adrenergic receptors block increases in rate and force of contraction Reduced efficiency of pumping in Arrythmias are due to Rapid heart rate that prevents adequate filling
Factors that Increase Heart Rate Body Temp, Fever, Excersize A heart block occurs in AV node
Cardiac cycle alternating sequence of diastole (relaxation) and systole (contraction) Congestive Heart Failure Occurs when heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet metabolic needs
Exchanging of O2 and CO2 in the lungs is what circulation Pulmonary Left sided heart failure causes less blood reaching organs – “forward” effect – congestion pulmonary circulation
Exchanging of nutrients and wastes between blood and cells is what circulation Systemic Right sided heart failure causes less blood to left side heart, backup effect, congestion, in systemic circulation
Vasoconstriction is increased by what two hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Congenital Heart Defects develop during 1st 8 weeks of embryonic life
Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure Valvular Defects cause Congenital Heart Defects
What kind of drug would be given to someone with high blood pressure and CHF Diuretic What can happen as a result to open heart surgery Pericarditis
Diuretics Remove excess sodium and/or water Rheumatic Fever results from an untreated infection that leads to acute systemic inflammation
Degenerative changes in small arteries and arterioles leads to what Arteriosclerosis A friction rub is an effect of rubbing of outer layer of tissue against walls due to pericarditis
A common high blood pressure disorder is Hypertension Hypertension is caused by arterial vasoconstriction
ACE inhibitors, Reduction of sodium intake, Weight reduction are effective treatments for what disorder Hypertension Three mechanisms that increase CO are Increased contractility, increase venous return, increased blood volume
Which disorder causes a more severe and persistent chest pain: Angina Pectoris or Mycordial Infarction Myocardial Infarction Three causes for dysrhythmias include inflammation, electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia
Why is untreated hypertension dangerous because congestive heart failure or strokes may occur
Created by: cdanella