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Cao Liver

Liver Zang Fu, Cao, Bastyr

QuestionAnswer
Location of Liver: Liver is located in the right hypochondriac region, beneath the diaphragm
Element of Liver Liver belongs to wood in the five elements theory. The nature of wood is active and ascending
What organ houses the soul? Liver is the house of the soul.
What organ stores blood? Liver is the store of the blood.
What relates to tendon? Liver is the center of tendon.
Where does liver open? Liver opens into the eyes,
Where does Liver manifest? Liver manifests in the nails
Emotion of Liver? Liver is related to the emotion anger
Body fluid of Liver? Liver is related to the body fluid tear
Military Name of Liver? General. Liver is a strong and rigid organ. This is why ancient Chinese medicine also sees the entire human body as an empire with the heart as its emperor and the liver as the general of its army
Location of Gallbladder? The gallbladder is located on the under surface of the right hepatic lobe of the liver.
Liver relationship with the Gallbladder? The liver channel connects with the gallbladder, and is thus externally and internally related to gallbladder
Describe the Physiological functions of the liver? Qi Flow: Mental, emotional qi flow and Physical qi flow Un-obstructing and diffusing the qi
Digestive functions of the Liver? Reinforce SP, ST: wood controls earth Reinforce GB: internal-external relationship
Sexual functions of Liver? Regulate menstrual cycle, release egg Control ejaculation Store blood
What are the General liver disorder categories? excess, deficiency
Liver excesses: liver qi, heat, fire, yang, wind Depression of liver qi, upflaming (inflaming) of liver fire, pathogenic cold, damp heat, or phlegm accumulating in the liver, gallbladder and their channels
Describe the liver deficiencies: liver blood, liver yin
Describe Intermingled deficiency and excess of the Liver: 1) Hyperactivity of liver yang, 2) stirring of liver wind
What are some common symptoms and signs of the liver: Pain in the hypochondriac region Irritability, anger Dizziness, vertigo, headache, tremor, convulsion Eye disorders Abnormal menstruation Bitter taste in the mouth, jaundice Palpitation, insomnia, etc.
What are the three excess of the Liver? Liver Stagnation Liver Heat Liver Fire
What is the difference between Liver Stagnation and Liver heat? Liver Heat irritates and progresses liver stagnation to become Liver Fire.
What is the difference between liver heat and Liver Fire? Liver heat is aggravating liver stagnation to become liver fire. Liver Heat comes from emotional disturbances and poor (aggravating) diet. If one dispels liver heat the condition will not progress to become liver fire.
What is the difference between liver stagnation and liver fire? Liver Stagnation is a common disease with a positive outlook for recovery, Liver Fire is a difficult disease with a difficult outlook for recovery.
Define Liver Qi Stagnation (肝氣鬱結): It is a very common pattern in clinical practice -It is due to failure of the liver to unobstruct and diffuse qi. The excessive and harmful qi is depressed and stagnated in the liver
Etiology of Liver Stagnation: 1) Stress (70%) 2) emotional disharmony, depression, frustration, irritability, anger 3) pathogenic factors attacking the liver: bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite, Diet: sugar, ice cream, alcohol, drugs damage liver 4) Blood xu and Yin xu
What produces Damp Heat in the Liver? bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite, sugar, ice cream, alcohol, drugs all damage liver and produce damp heat.
What does excess stress cause? Liver Stagnation
Chief symptoms of Liver Stagnation: - Easily depressed: emotional depression, frustration, irritability, anger - Pain: hypochondriac and lower abdominal distension and pain, migrating pain
Pulse of Liver Stagnation? - Wiry pulse
General symptoms of Liver Stagnation: - Liver qi stagnation: no smooth qi flow - Sighing: an early sign - Sensation of "plum seed qi" in the throat - Lumps or mass along the liver channels - Breast distension, chest discomfort, Distension and soreness of the lower abdomen
What organs does Liver Qi Stagnation effect? Stomach, Spleen, Gallbladder.
Describe Liver qi Stagnation cause Stomach Problems Liver qi stagnation causes stomach problems (wood overacting earth) GERD, sour regurgitation, vomiting, belching
Describe Liver QI Stagnation cause Spleen Problems: Liver qi stagnation causes spleen problems (wood overacting earth) Anorexia, poor digestion, nausea Epigastric pain and distension Borborygmus, loose stools
Describe Liver QI Stagnation Gallbladder Problems Liver qi stagnation causes gallbladder problems (internal-external relationship) Jaundice, bitter taste
Describe Liver QI Stagnation Sexual Problems? Liver qi stagnation causes sexual problems (liver cannot function properly and regulate emotions) PMS, irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, infertility, ejaculation problems, impotency
Tongue of Liver Qi Stagnation: normal or purplish
Pulse of Liver Qi Stagnation: wiry
Western medicine disease examples of Liver Qi Stagnation: - Stress, anxiety, depression - Hypochondriac pain, IBS, GERD, stress asthma
Treatment principle of Liver Qi Stagnation: Invigorate liver qi and disperse stagnation.
Lifestyle changes of Liver Qi Stagnation: - Be happy, listen to music, relax - ↑↑↑ physical activity: yoga, walking, swimming - Diet: vegetarian diet if no blood deficiency, eliminate sugar (sugar ↑ heat)
Define Upflaming of Liver Fire (肝火上炎): Liver qi and fire rebellion, caused by emotional disturbances. Depression of liver qi transforms into liver fire. - Liver qi stagnation (depression) + Liver heat (irritability) progresses into Liver fire (anger)
Etiologyof Liver Fire: - Emotional disturbances - Alcohol, coffee, sugar, fatty foods, spicy foods, drugs
Clinical manifestation of Liver Fire: - Irritability, anger, headache - Red complexion, red eyes - Bitter taste, dry mouth, toxins in the body - Hypochondriac pain
Liver Fire acts upon which organs? 1) Liver fire causes stomach fire (wood overacting earth) - Constipation, mouth odor, bleeding gum, excessive appetite 2) Liver fire causes heart fire (mother-child relationship) - Mental dysfunction, insomnia, nightmares
Other general symptoms of Liver Fire: - Yellow scanty urine - Sudden tinnitus or deafness, internal ear pain with purulent discharge - Hematemesis (vomiting of blood), epistaxis
Tongue of Liver Fire: red tongue with thick yellow coating
Pulse of Liver Fire: wiry and rapid pulse, strong
Complications of Liver Fire: - Liver blood deficiency - Liver yin deficiency
Western medicine disease examples of Liver Fire: - Migraine headache, severe cravings
Treatment principle of Liver Fire: Clear the liver and purge the liver fire. This is a reducing method. It aims to make the liver clear and pass heat and fire from urine and stools (release excess via the meridian and bowel movement)
Lifestyle changes for Liver Fire: - ↓ alcohol, coffee, sugar, fatty foods, spicy foods - ↑ cooling foods, drink lots of water - ↑ exercise, sweating, detox, bowel movement - Cry to release emotions, music, singing
Definition of Liver Blood deficiency (肝血虛)? This pattern is due to hemopoietic impairment caused by deficiency of spleen and kidney,which is the main source of blood
What are the two types of BLood Xu? liver and heart blood deficiency
Etiology of Liver Blood deficiency? 1) Nutritional qi xu due to SP and ST xu. 2) Kidney essence xu 3) Chronic diseases or too much worry (heart shen disturbance) injuring blood 4) depression of LV qi consuming LV blood 5) Blood loss damaging the LV's ability to store blood and vice vers
Chief Clinical manifestation of Liver Blood Xu? - Eye problems - Chronic hypochondriac pain - Blood deficiency symptoms: 1 yellow, 5 pales (especially pale tongue)
General Clinical manifestation of Liver Blood Xu? - Eye problems: dry eyes, spots in visual field, blurred vision, night blindness (bird vision) - Tendon and nail symptoms: limb weakness, muscle numbness, rigid and stiff joints, tremors, pale and brittle nails. - Sexual problems: female menstrual probl
Complications of Liver Blood Xu? - Whole body blood deficiency, especially of the heart - Liver yin deficiency, kidney essence deficiency
Western medicine disease examples of Liver Blood Xu? - Anemia - Chronic tendonitis - Psychological disorders: anxiety, mental problems, psychotic disorders
Treatment principle of Liver BLood Xu? Nourish the blood and strengthen the liver's function to store blood -Tonify spleen qi
Lifestyle changes of Liver Blood Xu? - Eat dark vegetables, whole grains, good protein sources
Definition of Liver Yin Insufficiency (肝陰不足): The manifestation of impairment and deficiency of liver yin and fluid
Etiology of Liver Yin Insufficiency? -Emotional disharmonies, depression of qi -liver qi stagnation -liver fire -liver blood deficiency -liver yin deficiency -Febrile disease, extreme heat injuring liver yin Ex. meningitis, severe infections
Chief manifestations of Liver Yin Insufficiency? - Eye problems - Hypochondriac pain, especially on the left - Dry red tongue without coating
General manifestations of Liver Yin Insufficiency? - Xu heat symptoms: malar flush, afternoon fever, feverish in five centers, night sweat, dry throat and mouth - Eye problems: dry eyes, "fly" floaters in eyes (constant), vision changes - If liver dries out cirrhosis - Dizziness, tinnitus, dry skin
Tongue of Liver yin Xu?: dry red tongue without coating
Pulse of Liver yin Xu?: wiry, thready and rapid pulse
Complications of Liver yin Xu?: - Liver yang uprising - Kidney yin deficiency
Western medicine disease examples of Liver yin Xu?: - Eye floaters - Tinnitus - Hepatitis B and C (more concerned with hepatitis C because can progress to cirrhosis)
Treatment principle of Liver yin Xu?: Tonify liver yin and reduce deficient heat - Do NOT take Tylenol or aspirin to ↓ heat (this is deficiency heat, not excess heat) Since the liver yin and kidney essence are mutually engendering, treatment usually involves the liver and the kidney together
Lifestyle changes of Liver yin Xu?: - Tofu (yin tonic), vegetable soup, mushroom soup - Exercise, meditation, yoga - Longevity: must protect yin - Note that estrogen is yin tonic
Definition Liver Yang Hyperactivity / Uprising (肝陽上亢)?: The manifestation of water (kidney) not nourishing wood (liver) liver yang becomes hyperactive
Etiology of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? - It is mainly due to liver yin and kidney yin deficiency failing to control liver yang. - Anger, anxiety, qi stagnation and fire consume yin and fluid and cause yin yang imbalance.
Clinical manifestation of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? - Shi (yang) symptoms in upper body: Vertigo, dizziness, headache, and eye pain, flushed complexion Anxiety, irritability, anger - Xu (yin) symptoms in low body: Sore in low back + knee - Xu heat > HT Palpitation, poor memory, insomnia, dreaming - KD >
Tongue of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? red tongue without coating
Pulse of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? wiry and strong or thready and rapid
Complications of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? - Too much liver yang can cause liver wind
Western medicine disease examples of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? - Hypertension**** - Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) - Seizure - PMS, menopause
Treatment principle of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? Subdue liver yang, nourish liver and kidney yin
Lifestyle changes of Liver Yang Hyperactivity? - Tofu, meditation, yoga: protect yin - Control sexual activity: sexual activity consumes yin
Definition of Stirring of Liver Wind (肝風內動): The concept of wind in Chinese medicine indicates rapid changes and constant movement Characteristics of liver wind: vertigo, convulsion, tremor and the other "shaking" signs and symptoms.
What are the 4 kinds of stirring of liver wind? - Hyperactivity of liver yang producing wind* - Extreme heat producing wind - Blood deficiency producing wind - Yin deficiency producing wind
Describe Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind? the most common and most important in clinical practice. It is due to liver and kidney yin deficiency. Liver yang is rebelling and rising suddenly, which stirs up liver wind internally Ex. hypertensive crisis, stroke.
Describe Extreme heat producing Liver wind: too much toxins, loss of consciousness. Ex. fever with convulsion, meningitis.
Describe Blood deficiency producing Liver wind: Muscle rigidity, muscle spasm, numbness, local symptoms, 1 yellow, 5 pales
Describe Yin deficiency producing Liver wind: Ex. Parkinson's disease, trembling, shaking, deficiency heat symptoms
Chief symptoms of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: - Severe dizziness, shaking extremities - Sudden fall, loss of consciousness, hemiplegia - Tachycardia
General symptoms Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: - Vertigo, limb tremors - Headache with shaking movement - Rigidity and stuffiness in the neck - Numbness in the hand and foot - Speech defect, deviation of mouth and eyes - Gurgling with sputum in the throat - Coma
Tongue of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: red tongue with yellow sticky coating
Pulse of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: Strong wiry pulse- Note: if have long pulse everyday, indicate atherosclerosis
Western medicine disease examples of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: - Hypertension - Hypertensive crisis leading to stroke
Treatment principle of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: Calm the liver and extinguish the wind radically by fostering yin and subduing yang. Send patient to ER.
Prognosis and complications of Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind: - Yin yang separation - death or post-stroke (qi deficiency, can cause blood stagnation)
Post-stroke rehabilitation (Hyperactivity of liver yang producing Liver wind) - Physiotherapy - Reinforce spleen and kidney qi - Start treatment as soon as possible, should recover completely in 6 months (difficult to recover completely past 6 months)
Definition of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels (虛凝肝脈)? The manifestation of pathogenic cold cumulated in the liver channels
Etiology of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: Exogenous pathogenic cold invading the body, Depression of liver qi.
Clinical manifestations of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: - Cramp in the lower abdomen - Pain and distension in the testes and scrotum With prolapsing sensation - Alleviated by warmth, aggravated by coldness Note: - Female: experience more cold in the blood - Male: experience more cold in the liver meridian
Tongue of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: smooth white coating
Pulse of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: deep wiry and slow pulse
Prognosis and complications of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: - Constant cold qi stagnation blood stagnation yang deficiency
Treatment principle of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: Invigorate circulation of qi and disperse the pathogenic cold
Lifestyle changes of Stagnation of Cold in the Liver Channels: - Warm ginger tea
Definition of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder (肝膽濕虛)? The manifestation of damp heat accumulating in the liver and gallbladder, which is cause by pathogenic damp and heat invading the body
Where does Damp Heat of the Liver and Gallbladder Accumulate? 1) In the organs: a. Liver: can be caused by virus, bacteria, parasites, bad foods (too greasy or sugary) b. Gallbladder 2) In the Liver and Gallbladder channels
Etiology of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder: Eating too much greasy and sweet food or dysfunction of the spleen and stomach produces damp internally. The damp is then accumulated and transformed into heat
Tongue of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder: red tongue with yellow sticky coating
Pulse of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder: wiry and rapid pulse
Signs and symptoms of of Damp Heat in the Liver Organ: -Jaundice (hepatocellular). -Soft loose yellow stool -Yellow urine -Yellow skin and sclera -Low grade fever -Poor appetite, anorexia -Loose stool, diarrhea -Liver enlargement -Right hypochondriac pain -Abdominal distension -Bitter taste -Ex. H
Signs and symptoms of of Damp Heat in the Gallbladder Organ: -Jaundice (obstructive) -Hard light pale stool -Yellow urine -Yellow skin and sclera -Alternating chills and fever -Nausea -Constipation -Referred pain to shoulder -Right hypochondriac pain -Abdominal distension -Bitter taste -Ex. Cholecystitis
Complications of of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder Organ: - Chronic hepatitis - Liver yin deficiency - Qi and blood stagnation
Signs and symptoms of of Damp Heat in the Channel: ** No jaundice -Symptoms in genital areas -Eczema in scrotum with heavy itching (bad diet) -Pain and distension in testes -Leukorrhea with yellow color and fetid odor -Vaginal itching -Ex. STDs
Complications of Damp Heat in the Channel: -Damp heat goes internally to liver organ. -Chronic damp heat in organ -Liver yin deficiency -Qi and blood stagnation
Treatment principle of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder: Regulate liver function and eliminate damp heat
Lifestyle changes of Damp Heat in the Liver and Gallbladder: - Avoid cold, damp food: raw foods, sugar, creamy food, seafood, dairy
Definition of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm) (膽鬱痰擾證): -The manifestation of failure of the gallbladder's excreting and discharging function. - Phlegm heat disturbs the body internally, which is a result of an emotional disorder. - Depression of the liver qi produces the phlegm (Will see disharmony of gall
Gallbladder symptoms of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm): -Unable to make decisions, shy, timid, coward attitudes -phlegm disturbing the mind -Heart Shen is disturbed: palpitation, insomnia,irritability, worries -Bitter taste in the mouth
Stomach symptoms of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm): - Nausea, dry vomiting, chest fullness - Hypochondriac distension and pain - Dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus - Tongue: yellow sticky coating - Pulse: wiry and slippery pulse
Complications of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm) - Liver qi stagnation, liver fire: anxiety, panic - Heart Shen disturbed - Spleen and stomach qi deficiency
Treatment principle of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm): Regulate qi and transform phlegm, clear the gallbladder and harmonize the stomach
Lifestyle changes of Depression of Gallbladder and Disturbance of Phlegm (Gallbladder Phlegm): - Counseling
Created by: Bastyr40