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CIT132 Chapter 8 Wir

CIT132 Chapter 8 Wireless Networking

QuestionAnswer
2.4 GHz band The 2.4 GHz band, which allows for 11 unlicensed channels, used by WLANs that follow the popular 802.11b and 802.11g standards. Also used for cordless telephone, making the 2.4 GHz band more susceptible to interference than the 5-GHz band.
5-GHz band A range of frequencies that comprises four frequency bands: 5.1 GHz, 5.3 GHz, 5.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. It consists of 24 unlicensed bands, each 20 MHz wide. The 5-GHz band is used by WLANs that follow the 802.11a and 802.11n standards.
802.11a The IEEE standard for a wireless networking technique that uses multiple frequency bands in the 5-GHz frequency range and provides a theoretical maximum throughput of 54 Mbps.
802.11b The IEEE standard for a wireless networking technique that uses DSSS (direct-sequence spread spectrum) signaling in the 2.4–2.4835-GHz frequency range 802.11b provides a theoretical maximum of 11-Mbps throughput.
802.11g The IEEE standard for a wireless networking technique designed to be compatible with 802.11b while using different encoding techniques that allow it to reach a theoretical maximum capacity of 54 Mbps.
802.11n The IEEE standard for a wireless networking technique that may issue signals in the 2.4- or 5-GHz band and can achieve actual data throughput between 65 and 600 Mbps. 802.11n is backward compatible with 802.11a, b, and g.
802.16 An IEEE standard for wireless MANs. 802.16 networks may use frequencies between 2 and 66 GHz. Their antennas may operate in a line-of-sight or non-line-of-sight manner and cover 50 kilometers (or approximately 30 miles). WiMAX.
802.16e Currently, the most popular version of WiMAX. With 802.16e, IEEE improved the mobility and QoS characteristics of the technology, making it better suited to VoIP and mobile phone users.
access point A device used on wireless LANs that transmits and receives wireless signals to and from multiple nodes and retransmits them to the rest of the network segment. They may use directional or omnidirectional antennas.
active scanning A method used by wireless stations to detect the presence of an access point. In active scanning, the station issues a probe to each channel in its frequency range and waits for the access point to respond.
ad hoc A type of wireless LAN in which stations communicate directly with each other (rather than using an access point).
association In the context of wireless networking, the communication that occurs between a station and an access point to enable the station to connect to the network via that access point.
beacon frame In the context of wireless networking, a frame issued by an access point to alert other nodes of its existence.
Bluetooth A wireless networking standard that uses FHSS signaling in the 2.4-GHz band to achieve a maximum throughput of either 723 Kbps or 2.1 Mbps, depending on the version. Bluetooth was designed for use primarily with small office or home networks
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) A consortium of companies, including Sony Ericsson, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba, and IBM, that formally banded together in 1998 to refine and standardize Bluetooth technology.
BSS (basic service set) In IEEE terminology, a group of stations that share an access point.
BSSID (basic service set identifier) In IEEE terminology, the identifier for a BSS (basic service set).
channel bonding In the context of 802.11n wireless technology, the combination of two 20-MHz frequency band to create one 40-MHz frequency band that can carry more than twice the amount of data that a single 20-MHz band could.
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) A network access method used on 802.11 wireless networks. CSMA/CA does not eliminate, but minimizes, the potential for collisions.
dial return A method of satellite Internet access in which a subscriber receives data via a satellite downlink transmission, but sends data to the satellite via an analog modem (dialup) connection.
diffraction In the context of wireless signal propagation, the phenomenon that occurs when an electromagnetic wave encounters an obstruction and splits into secondary waves. The secondary waves continue to propagate in the direction in which they were split.
directional antenna A type of antenna that issues wireless signals along a single direction, or path.
downlink A connection from an orbiting satellite to an Earth-based receiver.
DSSS (direct-sequence spread spectrum) A transmission technique in which a signal’s bits are distributed over an entire frequency band at once. Each bit is coded so that the receiver can reassemble the original signal upon receiving the bits.
ESS (extended service set) A group of access points and associated stations (or basic service sets) connected to the same LAN.
ESSID (extended service set identifier) A special identifier shared by BSSs that belong to the same ESS.
fading A change in a wireless signal’s strength as a result of some of the electromagnetic energy being scattered, reflected, or diffracted after being issued by the transmitter.
FHSS (frequency hopping spread spectrum) A wireless signaling technique in which a signal jumps between several different frequencies within a band in a synchronization pattern known to the channel’s receiver and transmitter.
fixed A type of wireless system in which the locations of the transmitter and receiver are static. In a fixed connection, the transmitting antenna focuses its energy directly toward the receiving antenna. This results in a point-to-point link.
GEO (geosynchronous orbit or geostationary orbit) The term used to refer to a satellite that maintains a constant distance from a point on the equator at every point in its orbit. Geosynchronous orbit satellites are the type used to provide satellite Internet access.
hot spot An area covered by a wireless access point that provides visitors with wireless services, including Internet access.
infrastructure WLAN A type of WLAN in which stations communicate with an access point and not directly with each other.
iwconfig A command-line utility for viewing and setting wireless interface parameters on Linux and UNIX workstations.
LEO (low Earth orbiting) A type of satellite that orbits the Earth with an altitude between 100 and 900 miles, closer to the Earth’s poles than the orbits of either GEO or MEO satellites.
line-of-sight See LOS.
LOS (line-of-sight) A wireless signal or path that travels directly in a straight line from its transmitter to its intended receiver. This type of propagation uses the least amount of energy and results in the reception of the clearest possible signal.
medium Earth orbiting See MEO.
MEO (medium Earth orbiting) A type of satellite that orbits the Earth roughly 6000 to 12,000 miles above its surface, positioned between the equator and the poles. MEO satellites can cover a larger area of the Earth’s surface
MIMO (multiple input-multiple output) In the context of 802.11n wireless networking, the ability for access points to issue multiple signals to stations, thereby multiplying the signal’s strength and increasing their range and data-carrying capacity.
mobile A type of wireless system in which the receiver can be located anywhere within the transmitter’s range. This allows the receiver to roam from one place to another while continuing to pick up its signal.
multipath The characteristic of wireless signals that follow a number of different paths to their destination (for example, because of reflection, diffraction, and scattering).
multiple input-multiple output See MIMO.
narrowband A type of wireless transmission in which signals travel over a single frequency or within a specified frequency range.
omnidirectional antenna A type of antenna that issues and receives wireless signals with equal strength and clarity in all directions. This type of antenna is used when many different receivers must be able to pick up the signal, or when the receiver’s location is highly mobile.
PAN (personal area network) A small (usually home) network composed of personal communications devices.
passive scanning In the context of wireless networking, the process in which a station listens to several channels within a frequency range for a beacon issued by an access point.
personal area network See PAN.
probe In 802.11 wireless networking, a type of frame issued by a station during active scanning to find nearby access points.
radiation pattern The relative strength over a three-dimensional area of all the electromagnetic energy an antenna sends or receives.
range The geographical area in which signals issued from an antenna or wireless system can be consistently and accurately received.
reassociation In the context of wireless networking, the process of a station establishing a connection (or associating) with a different access point.
reflection In the context of wireless, the phenomenon that occurs when an electromagnetic wave encounters an obstacle and bounces back toward its source.
roaming In wireless networking, the process that describes a station moving between BSSs without losing connectivity.
RTS/CTS (Request to Send/Clear to Send) An exchange in which a wireless station requests the exclusive right to communicate with an access point and the access point confirms that it has granted that request.
satellite return A type of satellite Internet access service in which a subscriber sends and receives data to and from the Internet over the satellite link.
scanning The process a wireless station undergoes to find an access point. See also active scanning and passive scanning.
scattering The diffusion of a wireless signal that results from hitting an object that has smaller dimensions compared to the signal’s wavelength.
site survey In the context of wireless networking, an assessment of client requirements, facility characteristics, and coverage areas to determine an access point arrangement that will ensure reliable wireless connectivity within a given area.
spread spectrum A type of wireless transmission in which lower-level signals are distributed over several frequencies simultaneously. Spread-spectrum transmission is more secure than narrowband.
SSID (service set identifier) A unique character string used to identify an access point on an 802.11 network.
station An end node on a network; used most often in the context of wireless networks.
transponder -The equipment on a satellite that receives an uplinked signal from Earth, amplifies the signal, modifies its frequency, then retransmits it (in a downlink) to an antenna on Earth.
uplink A connection from an Earth-based transmitter to an orbiting satellite.
wireless The signals made of electromagnetic energy that travel through the atmosphere.
wireless broadband The term used to describe the recently released standards for high-throughput, long-distance digital data exchange over wireless connections. WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) is one example of a wireless broadband technology.
wireless gateway An access point that provides routing functions and is used as a gateway.
wireless router An access point that provides routing functions.
wireless spectrum A continuum of electromagnetic waves used for data and voice communication. Each type of wireless service can be associated with one area of the wireless spectrum.
WLAN (wireless LAN) A LAN that uses wireless connections for some or all of its transmissions.
Created by: Leisac