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Chem Final Review

Cards that cover all 25 lectures

QuestionAnswer
What is a major source of energy for the body? Carbohydrates
What is the major source of carbohydrates? Starch
Simple sugars that contain four to eight carbons and only one aldehyde or ketone group Monosaccharides
What type of sugars can give up electrons? Reducing sugars / Monosaccarhides
What are examples of monosaccharides? Glucose and Fructose
Formed by the interaction of two monosaccharides with the loss of a water molecule Oligosaccharides
What is another name for oligosaccharides? Disaccharides
What are examples of (oligo)disaccharides maltose lactose and sucrose
Formed by interactions between many units of simple sugars. Polysaccharides
What are examples of polysaccharides? Starch and Glycogen
What breaks down ingested starches into disaccharides? Salivary Amylase
Monosaccharides are broken down by _______ Disaccharides
Transported to the liver and converted to glucose Monosaccharides
Where is glycogen stored in the body? Liver and skeletal muscle
Process of enzyme action on glucose to eventually form glycogen Glycogenesis
Breakdown of glycogen, with the eventual formation of glucose-6-phosphate or free glucose that can be used for energy production Glycogenolysis
Catabolism of glucose to pyruvate or lactate for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. (Embden-Meyerhof pathway and Krebs' cycle) Gluconeogenesis
Pancreatic hormone that decreases glucose levels by increasing cellular uptake of glucose and promoting glycogenesis and lipogenesis Insulin
pancreatic hormone that increases glucose levels by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Glucagon
Adrenal hormone that elevates glucose levels Epinephrine
Pituitary hormones that increase glucose levels Growth Hormone and Adrenocorticotropic hormone
adrenal hormones that increase gluconeogenesis and eventually elevate blood glucose Glucocorticoids
Stimulates glycogenolysis and increases blood glucose levels Thyroid hormones
What effect does insulin have on glucose levels? insulin decreases glucose levels
What effect does glucagon have on glucose levels? glucagon increases glucose levels
What effect does epinephrine have on glucose levels? epinephrine increases glucose levels
What effect does growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone have on glucose levels? growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone increase glucose levels
What effect does glucocorticoids have on glucose levels? Glucocorticoids eventually elevate blood glucose
What effect does thyroid hormone have on glucose levels? thyroid hormone will increase blood glucose levels
This disorder occurs when fasting blood sugar level rises higher than 110 mg/dl due to a pathological disorder, such as diabetes or liver failure Hyperglycemia
This disorder occurs when the fasting blood glucose level is <70 mg/dl. Hypoglycemia
What conditions does hypoglycemia result from? hormone deficiency, drug reaction, insulin excess, or a genetic disorder
Sugar in the urine Glycosuria
Occurs when the renal threshold for glucose is exceeded during hyperglycemia Glycosuria
Acute state with hyperglycemia and ketosis. Caused by an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 / Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide to eventually form a colored product. Falsely low results are caused by high serum levels of uric acid, bilirubin, or ascorbic acid Glucose oxidase method
Glucose becomes phosphorylated and dehydrogenated to eventually form NADPH Hexokinase method
This test evaluates the insulin response challenge. Useful in evaluating pregnancy-induced diabetes and involves drawing a fasting blood specimen, followed by patient ingestion of a 75-g oral dose of glucose in liquid within a 5-minute period. Glucose Tolerance Test
This test is used to evaluate diabetes. A fasting blood specimen and a specimen taken 2 hours after breakfast are collected. 2 hour postprandial blood glucose test.
Organic compounds that contain both an amino group and a carboxyl group. Amino acids
Proteins are composed of what? Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulfur
How much essential amino acids be supplied? Through dietary intake
What are the essential amino acids? Valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, and histidine.
Produced by the removal of an amino group from an amino acid. Ketoacids
Glycogenic to generate glucose precursors or Ketogenic to generate ketone bodies: Ketoacids
Inherited disorder causing lack of phenylalanine to tyrosine, which results in the formation of phenylpyruvate Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Disorder of decarboxylation of the ketoacids of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which results in accumulation of ketoacids in blood, urine , and spinal fluids. Maple Syrup urine disease (MSUD)
Caused by impaired enzyme activity, which results in elevated levels of homocysteine and methionine in plasma and urine. Homocysteinuria
Responsible for osmotic pressure of plasma and serves as a transport protein. Albumin
Immunoglobulins are _____ in water insoluble
Where are proteins synthesized? In the liver (serum proteins) or by B-cells (immunoglobulins)
Where does protein catabolism take place? GI tract, kidneys, and liver.
Peptide chains that hydrolyze to amino acids Simple proteins
Composed of protein and a nonprotein substance, such as lipid, carbohydrate, or metals Conjugated proteins
What are the functions of protein? Tissue nutrition, water distribution, plasma buffer, substance transport, and structural support
Proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions but do not alter the equilibrium point of the reaction Enzymes
What is the composition of an enzyme? Composed of a specific amino acid sequence (primary), which results in a stearic arrangement (secondary) that becomes folded (tertiary)
What does the active site of an enzyme bind? a substrate and an allosteric site
Catalyze an oxidation-reduction reaction. Examples include lactate dehydrogenase and G6PD Oxidoreductases
Catalyze the transfer of a group other than hydrogen. Examples are aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatine kinase, and gamma-gluamyl transferase. Transferases
Expresses the relationship between the velocity of any enzymatic reaction and the substrate concentration. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km)
Substrate concentration at which the enzyme yields half the possible maximum velocity of the reaction. Km
Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) formula V = Vmax [S] / ( Km + [S] )
The reaction rate is directly proportional to substrate concentration. With enzyme excess, the reaction rate steadily increases as more substrate is added until the substrate saturates all available enzymes. First-order kinetics
The reaction rate is dependent on enzyme concentration only. When product forms, the excess enzyme combines with excess free substrate. Zero-order kinetics
When exceeded by substrate concentration, causes the velocity of the reaction to be proportional to the enzyme concentration Enzyme Concentration
Each enzyme operates maximally at a specific ____ pH
How will temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction? Increased temperature increases the rate by increasing the movement of molecules
How does the cofactor concentration affect the velocity of an enzymatic reaction? Increasing the cofactor concentration increases the velocity
Binds to the active site of the enzyme, causing Km to increase Competitive inhibitors
Binds at a place other than the active site, causing Vmax to decrease Noncompetitive inhibitor
Binds to the ES complex; both Vmax and Km decrease Uncompetitive inhibitor
How can enzyme activity be measured? Either as increase in product concentration, a decrease in substrate concentration, a decrease in coenzyme concentration or an increase in concentration of altered coenzyme
Performed after a reaction proceeds for a designated length of time, then is stopped. Measurement is made of the amount of reaction that has occurred. Endpoint measurements
Multiple measurements of absorbance change made at specific time intervals Kinetic measurements
Amount of enzyme that catalyzes a reaction of 1 micromol of substrate per minute under specific conditions. International Unit of enzyme Activity
Hydrolyzes phosphate esters, but the function of this enzyme is relatively unknown Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Where are significant amounts of ALP found? Liver, bone, intestines, kidney, and placenta
How can improper anticoagulant use affect ALP values? Decreased values
How can a hemolyzed sample affect an ALP value? Give a false positive
What is the diagnostic significance of ALP? Elevation during the third trimester of pregnancy and in persons with liver disease, bone disease, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus.
What are the four isoenzymes of ALP Bone, liver, intestinal, and placental fractions
Transfers an amino group between aspartate and keto acids. Vitamin B6 is the coenzyme in this reaction Aspartate transaminase (AST)
Where is AST found? cardiac tissue, liver, skeletal muscles, and RBCs
Catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from alanine to alpha-ketoglutarate with the formation of glutamate and pyruvate. Alanine Transaminase (ALT)
Where is ALT localized? Liver, some in the heart, skeletal muscle, and RBCs
Clinical significance of ALT evaluation of hepatocellular disorders
Catalyzes a reaction responsible for the formation of ATP in tissues, especially contractile systems. Creatine Kinase
CK is involved in the storage of what? High-energy creatine phosphate
Where is CK localized? Skeletal muscle, brain, and cardiac muscle in addition to many other tissues.
What is clinical significance of CK Elevation in muscle disorders. CK and one of its isoenzymes is a sensitive indicator of acute myocardial infarction and muscular distrophy.
Catalyzes the interconversion of lactic and pyruvic acids. It is a hydrogen-transfer enzyme that uses the coenzyme NAD. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
Where is LD distrubuted? Widely distributed in all tissues, with high concentrations found in the heart and liver. Low levels in RBCs, skeletal muscle, and kidneys
What is the diagnostic significance of LD? Diagnosis of cardiac, hepatic, skeletal, muscle, and renal disease. Highest LD levels are seen in persons with pernicious anemia, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and crush injuries.
Transfers a gamma-gluamyl residue to an amino acid. This function is involved in peptide and protein synthesis. Gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT)
Where is GGT distributed? Tissues ( Kidneys, brain, prostate, pancreas, and liver.) Urine contains a significant amount
GGT is measured by what method? Szasz assay
What is the significance of GGT? Elevated in almost all hepatobiliary disorders or biliary tract obstruction as well as in patients taking enzyme-inducing drugs like warfarin, phenobarbital, and dilatin
What are the GGT levels in a patient with acute pancreatitis Increased GGT levels
This enzyme is useful in the detection of alcoholism and the monitoring of alcohol intake by patients during treatment GGT
A hydrolase that catalyzes the breakdown of starch and glycogen and produces products consisting of glucose, maltose, and dextrins. Amylase (AMS)
Where is AMS distributed? Pancreas and salivary glands, as well as skeletal muscle.
What is the clinical significance of AMS Useful in diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. AMS levels rise 2 to 12 hours after the onset of an attack and peak at 24 hours.
The measurement of radiant energy absorbed by a solution. This measurement can be related to the concentration of a substance in the solution. Absorbance Spectrophotometry
This measures the concentration through the detection of absorbance of electromagnetic radiation by atoms instead of molecules. It is used to measure concentration of metals that are not easily excited Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
the number of moles of particle per kilogram of water and depends only on the number of particles, not the types present. Osmolality
Migration of charged particles in some medium when an electrical field is applied. Depending on the charge of the molecules, negatively charged particles migrate toward the positive electrode (anode) and positive charged move to the negative (cathode) Electrophoresis
In electrophoresis, what is DIRECTLY proportional to rate of movement? Charge of molecule
In electrophoresis, what is INVERSELY proportional to the rate of movement? Size of the molecule
In electrophoresis, increased current increases what? Migration rate
In electrophoresis, increased ionic strength decreased what? migration rate
In electrophoresis, how does decreased pH affect migration rate? Slows it down
Chemical assay based on the highly specific and tight, noncovalent binding of antibodies to target molecules. Immunoassay
Technique used to separate complex mixtures on the basis of different physical interactions between the individual compounds and the stationary phase of the system. The goal is to produce "fractions" for quantitation. Chromatography
Semi-quantitative screening method Thin Layer Chromatography
Layer of absorbent material is coated on a piece of glass. spots of sample are applied. solvent is placed in container and migrates up the thin layer by capillary action. Thin Layer Chromatography
How is retention factor calculated? Rf = Distance component moves / (total distance - distance solvent front moves)
Quantitative results for drug testing. Highly specific and sensitive. Apparatus consists of a pressure pump, gel filled column, sample injector, detector, and recorder. High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Separates mixtures of volatile compounds. Solvent is a gas, sample is vaporized, and detectors are thermal conductivity or flame ionization. Gas Chromatography
Used in drug identification. Special detector can be used to measure the fragmentation patterns of ions. Gas Chromatography Mass Spec
What are the Non-Protein Nitrogenous materials? Urea, Creatinine, uric acid
Serves to process substances that have been absorbed from the gut and then transferred to the blood for use by other cells of the body. Liver
Involved with processing lipids. Composed of bile acids, salts, pigments, and cholesterol. Bile
Where are bile salts formed? Hepatocytes
Where are bile salts stored? Gall-bladder
Major bile pigment formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin when aged RBCs are phagocytized. Bilirubin
How is hemoglobin broken down? globin (reused) + iron (reused) + porphyrin (excreted) + biliverdin (reduced to bilirubin)
Bilirubin found in the liver that is water soluble Conjugated Bilirubin
This substance floats out of the bile canaliculi and into the gut, where it is eventually broken down to form Urobilinogen, which is oxidized to produce urobilin and excreted in the stool. Conjugated bilirubin
Yellowish discoloration of skin. Caused by abnormal bilirubin metabolism or by retention of bilirubin jaundice
Result of excessive bilirubin presented to the liver. It can occur in newborns and in people with hemolytic anemia or ineffective erythropoiesis. This condition produces increased serum unconjugated bilirubin. PREHEPATIC jaundice
Present in people with hepatobiliary disease. This disorder exhibits increases in both unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin levels. HEPATIC Jaundice
Produced by obstruction of the flow of bile into the gut either by gallstones or a tumor, which causes increased conjugated bilirubin levels in serum and urine, but low Urobilinogen levels in urine and colorless stool. POST HEPATIC jaundice
Defined as destruction of the liver’s architecture. The leading cause of this disease is alcoholism Cirrhosis
Liver destruction caused by viral infection, although the etiology of this disease is unknown. Ammonia accumulates in the liver and blood. Reyes Syndrome
Defined as inflammation of the liver and subsequent hepatocellular damage caused by bacterial infection, drugs, toxins, or viral infections. Hepatitis
Infectious hepatitis. Transmitted by contamination of food and water Hepatitis A
Serum hepatitis. Transmitted through parenteral injection or through exchange of bodily secretions Hepatitis B
Transmitted parenterally through blood transfusions, body piercings, and inoculations and has become more common. Leading cause of liver disease. Hepatitis C
The GI Tract is composed of what 5 regions? mouth, stomach, duodenum, jejunum-ileum, and large intestine
Produced in the parietal cells of the stomach, this is required for the transport of B12 across the intestinal wall Intrinsic Factor
Highly vascularized organ connected to the small intestine by the ampulla of Vater. Considered to be both an endocrine gland that synthesizes hormones and exocrine gland that provides digestive enzymes to aid in digestion Pancreas
What type of cells produce glucagon? alpha cells
What type of cells are responsible for making insulin? beta cells
What cells produce gastrin and somatostatin ? delta cells
Breaks down starch and glycogen and is used to diagnose acute pancreatitis amylase
Hydrolyzes fats to produce alcohols and fatty acids with elevated levels present in people who have acute pancreatitis Lipase
Functions in protein breakdown trypsin
Autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by pulmonary disease and intestinal malabsorption caused by lack of pancreatic enzyme secretions Cystic Fibrosis
Associated with alcohol abuse or gallbladder disease and also occurs in patients with lipid disorders and is caused by the release of pancreatic enzymes from cells into the surrounding pancreatic tissue Pancreatitis
Multifactoral disease that occurs when the pancreas can no longer produce insulin, which leads to hyperglycemia. This disorder almost always destroys the beta cells in the islets Diabetes Mellitus
Fatal disease that affects the ducts in the pancreas. Insulinoma is a tumor of the beta cells in the islets that leads to increased circulating insulin and hypoglycemia Pancreatic Cancer
Determines the secretory capacity of the pancreas. It involves intubation and gathering of pancreatic fluid after stimulation with secretin, followed by measurement of the fluid volume Secretin test
Determines the presence of increased fats in feces, which is a disorder almost always associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Quantitative fecal fat examination
What specimen is collected for a Quantitative fecal fat examination a 72 hour fecal specimen. Fats extracted with ether and weighed.
Measured to diagnose cystic fibrosis. Sweat electrolytes
What is used to stimulate sweating on the skin during a sweat electrolyte test? Pilocarpine nitrate
What is the normal range of serum protein? 6.5 to 8.3 g / dL
Most widely used method of protein determination biuret method
Cupric (Cu 2+) ions react with peptide bonds to form a violet color proportional to the number of peptide bonds present biuret method
Based on the ability of proteins to bind dyes. Albumin binds dyes with the strongest affinity dye-binding method
Caused by kidney disease, blood loss, malnutrition, and liver disease hypoproteinemia
Observed in people with dehydration or excess production of gamma-globulins hyperproteinemia
Caused by a variety of disorders, including a poor diet, liver dysfunction, GI inflammation, and renal disease Decreased serum albumin
Alpha2 macroglobulin, increased in inflammatory conditions, burns, and rheumatic disease. Decreased levels are seen in people with transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease. haptoglobin
Alpha2 macroglobulin, decreased in people with Wilson’s disease and states of malnutrition Ceruloplasmin
Levels are increased during iron deficiency anemia Transferrin
Increases in this indicate infection, liver disease, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (IgM) , multiple myeloma, or autoimmune reactions. Immunoglobulin
Ions capable of carrying an electric charge Electrolytes
Most abundant extracellular cation Sodium
Essential for transmitting nerve impulses Sodium
Low blood volume induces secretion of renin, which raises blood pressure and causes production of ADH. Renin-ADH system
Low blood volume induces secretion of renin, which induces production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands renin-aldosterone system
Low serum sodium hyponatremia
Caused by gastrointestinal loss, burns or renal problems. Relative decrease of sodium caused by excess body water. hyponatremia
Increased sodium caused by excessive water loss, as in sweating or diarrhea. hypernatremia
Major intracellular cation that regulates activity at the neuromuscular junction, as well as cardiac muscle contraction and pH. Potassium
Controls the amount of potassium in circulation dietary intake
Induces potassium reabsorption and secretion by the renal tubules by exchanging it for sodium Aldosterone
Low serum potassium, result of decreased dietary intake, gastrointestinal loss, or renal dysfunction. Can produced irregular heartbeat Hypokalemia
High serum potassium. Rare. Occurs following excessive dietary intake, adrenal failure, blood transfusions, or crush injuries. Hyperkalemia
Major extracellular anion. Acts to maintain osmotic pressure, keeps body hydrated, and maintains electric neutrality via interaction with sodium or carbon dioxide Chloride
Moves chloride into RBCs as bicarbonate diffuses out to produce electro neutrality Chloride Shift
Caused by salt loss during renal disease , diabetic ketoacidosis, or prolonged vomiting Hypochloremia
Caused by dehydration, acute renal failure, prolonged diarrhea with loss of sodium bicarbonate, and salicylate intoxication hyperchloremia
Second most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid Bicarbonate
Major component of the blood buffering system. Accounts for 90% of total blood carbon dioxide, and maintains charge neutrality in the cell. Bicarb
Regulation of bicarb is achieved by the _____ Kidneys
Semi permeable membrane used to develop a potential between two different ion concentrations Ion selective electrodes
Silver ions are combined with chloride. Excess free silver ions are noted, elapsed time is relative to the chloride concentration Amperometric –coulometric titration
Difference between unmeasured anions and unmeasured cations. Normal range is 6 to 18 mmol. Anion gap
Calculation of an Anion Gap ( Na+ + K+ ) – (CL- + HCo3- )
Assures the maintenance of a constant blood pH through physiological buffers, the respiratory system, and the renal system Acid-Base balance
Three physiological buffers act to maintain a constant pH : Carbonic acid – bicarb system ; Hemoglobin ; Phosphoric acid – phosphate system
What system controls bicarbonate concentration? renal system
Henderson – Hasselbalch equation: pH = pK + log ( cA / cHA )
Results from hypoventilation, which causes a decrease in carbon dioxide elimination. Compensation occurs by the kidneys increasing the reabsorption of bicarbonate. Respiratory Acidosis
Results from an increase in ventilation, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide. Compensation occurs by the kidneys excreting more bicarbonate. Respiratory Alkalosis
Occurs in many disorders and results in a decrease in bicarb levels. The lungs compensate by hyperventilating. Metabolic acidosis
Produced in many disorders and results from an increase in bicarb levels. Lungs compenstate by hypoventilation Metabolic Alkalosis
These substances arise from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids Non-Protein Nitrogenous Materials
Major excretory product of protein metabolism and is synthesized in the liver from carbon dioxide and ammonia arising from the deamination of amino acids. Excreted by the kidneys Urea
Typically caused by decreased renal blood flow to the kidneys from congestive heart failure, shock, dehydration, decrease in blood volume, greater protein breakdown, or high-protein diet Prerenal Azotemia
Produced by renal failure Renal Azotemia
Caused by an obstruction anywhere in the renal system Postrenal Azotemia
Toxic condition involving a very high serum level of urea accompanied by renal failure Uremia
Made in the liver from amino acids and used in muscle as an energy source Creatine
Anhydrous state of Creatine, which is excreted into the plasma in an amount proportional to muscle mass and then excreted in the urine. Creatinine
Involves the reaction of Creatinine with picric acid to form a reddish chromogen. Absorbance is measured colorimetrically Jaffe reaction
Uses various enzymes and hydrogen peroxide to form a colored product Kinetic reaction
Estimate of the GFR obtained by measuring plasma Creatinine and its excretion into urine. Test requires a 24 hour urine specimen and blood sample for serum Creatinine determination. Creatinine Clearance
Calculate Creatinine Clearance UV / P x 1.73 / A
Normal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) : Creatinine ratio 10 to 20 : 1
Higher BUN : Creatinine ratios are indicative of what ? Elevation of BUN is caused by Prerenal rather than renal causes
Synthesized in the liver from the breakdown of nucleic acids and transported to the kidneys for reabsorption Uric acid
An elevated uric acid level is indicative of what ? gout, increased nuclear breakdown, renal disease, or toxemia of pregnancy
A decreased uric acid level is indicative of what? severe liver or kidney disease
Formed by the deamination of amino acids. Used by the liver to produce urea and is not excreted by the kidneys Ammonia
Increased ammonia levels are caused by what? severe liver dysfunction or inadequate blood circulation through the liver
During the chloride shift, chloride moves from plasma into what site: RED BLOOD CELL
In the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, is the gastric level increased or decreased: INCREASED
What vitamin functions in bone formation and the promotion of calcium and phosphorous absorption? Vitamin D
What is the most reliable method for methanol determination: GC
What term describes a decreased serum sodium: Hyponatremia
What is the effect of hemolysis on serum amylase levels: NO EFFECT
What are the two end products of sucrose hydrolysis: GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE
What is function of lipoproteins: TRANSPORTATION
What solvents are used to extract the color due to Urobilinogen in the Watson-Swartz test?: CHLOROFORM AND BUTANOL
A patient has a blood pH of 7.23 and a pCO2 of 69 mm hg , what state is demonstrated by their values? RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
What is hypernatremia: High levels of sodium in the blood
What is the hydrogen-ion selective membrane made of on the pH electrode: GLASS
In what organ is renin produced: Kidney
Bromcrestle green is used for the determination of what protein: ALBUMIN (DIBINDING PROCEDURE)
Is the serum lipase level in cystic fibrosis increased or decreased: DECREASED
What enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides: LIPASE
What are 4 organ sources of alkaline phosphatase: INTESTINES, LIVER, BONE, PLACENTA
In a full term pregnancy is the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio of 4:1 NL or ABNL: NORMAL
Does a decrease in blood pH stimulate or decrease respiration: STIMULATE
Thyroid hormone synthesis begins with the iodination of what amino acid: TYROSINE
What is a zwitter ion: CHARGED AMINO ACID
What organ produces albumin: LIVER
What 2 ions are involved in the chloride shift: CHLORIDE & BICARBONATE
If serum and urine Creatinine and urine flow rate are known, what else is needed to calc. Creatinine Clearance? BODY SURFACE AREA
What alkaline reaction combines protein peptide bonds with copper ions? BIURET
Under normal conditions, do levels of GH and Insulin vary directly or indirectly: INDIRECTLY
How is blood phosphorus influence by increase in Para Thyroid Hormone: DECREASED
What equation defines the dissociation constant and is used to calculate pH of buffer solution: HENDERSON-HASSELBALCH EQUATION
What does the Zimmerman reaction measure: 17-KETOSTEROIDS
Calcitonin has the opposite effect of what hormone: PARA THYROID HORMONE
What hormone lowers the level of Ca and Phosphate in the plasma and inhibits bone resorption: CALCITONIN
What substance is analyzed using the phospho-tungstic acid: URIC ACID
What cation is most prevalent in normal human plasma: Sodium
In metabolic acidosis, is patient bicarb NL, INC, or DEC? DECREASED
In what form is CO2 mainly transported in the blood? BICARBONATE
What serum electrophoretic pattern is characteristic of nephrotic syndrome: DEC in ALBUMIN AND INCREASE IN ALPHA 2
Is serum iron increased or decreased in hemolytic anemia: INCREASED
Amino glycoside toxicity is associated with what organ: KIDNEY
What pigment is formed from the oxidation of Urobilinogen: UROBILIN
How is the level of thyroid binding globulin affected by pregnancy?: INCREASED
What affect does parathyroid hormone have on calcium: INCREASED
Porphobilinogen is formed by the dehydrogenation of what acid ALA (AMINO LEVELINIC ACID)
What form of bilirubin is carried by albumin in the blood and is insoluble in water? : UNCONJUGATED BILIRUBIN
What is the function of Creatinine in the body: NO FUNCTION / WASTE PRODUCT
In a bilirubin determination, if the specimen is exposed to light, how is result affected? DECREASED
Does hyperventilation occur in respiratory acidosis or alkalosis? ALKALOSIS
What chemical causes the original color in the biuret reagent? COPPER
What is the specific site of epinephrine synthesis: ADRENAL MEDULLA
Where is ACTH synthesized: PITUTARY GLAND
What 4 elements does urea contain: NITROGEN, HYDROGEN, CARBON, OXYGEN
Does pancreatic insufficiency exhibit an abnormal d-zylose? NO
Is a urine arsenic level of 50 mg per 24 hr NL or INC? INC
What is the connective tissue order due to a deficiency of vitamin C? SCURVY
Is thymine a water soluble vitamin? YES
In a forensic strangulation case, is serum amylase inc or dec? INCREASED
How does an increase in altitude affect pCO2 and pO2? LOWER BOTH
What enzyme changes angiotensinogen to angiotensin: RENIN
In what area of the adrenal gland is cortisol synthesized: ADRENAL CORTEX
What organ conjugates bilirubin: LIVER
When light is absorbed at one wavelength and emitted at a longer wavelength, what is it called? FLUORESCENCE
In what form is glucose stored in the liver? GLYCOGEN
What sugar when hydrolyzed yields glucose and Galactose: LACTOSE
What is the NL serum lithium level? ZERO
In a NL full term amniotic fluid, is there more lecithin or sphingomyelin? LECITHIN
In obstruction of the common bile duct is urine urobilinogen, NL, INC or DEC? DECREASED
In what gland is estrodiol produced? OVARIES
What are the major metabolites of the androgen hormones? 17-KETOSTEROIDS
Name two substances that are inc in plasma and urine in pheochromocytoma: EPINEPHRINE and VMA
Chemical substance that is produced and secreted into the blood by an organ or tissue and has a specific effect on target tissue located away from the site of production Hormone
Collection of hormones, carrier proteins, and other components form what system: endocrine system
How are hormones classified? by their tissue origin or their structure
Hypothalamus thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cotricotropin-releasing factor
Anterior pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), FSH, leteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone
Posterior pituitary vasopressin, oxytocin
Adrenal medulla epinephrine, norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex cortisol, aldosterone, 11-deoxycortisol
Thyroid triodothyronine, thyroxine, Calcitonin.
Parathyroids parathyroid hormone
Pancreas insulin, glucagon
GI tract gastrin
Ovaries Estrogens and progesterone
Placenta Progesterone, HCG, Human placental lactogen
Testes testosterone , other androgens
Kidneys 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D, erythropoietin
Are hormones water soluble or insoluble? water-soluble
Do hormones require transport proteins to move through the blood? NO
Involved in the regulation of sexual development and characteristics Steroid hormones
Where does hormone binding occur? on or within a cell
Precursors of peptide hormones prohormones
Release of a hormone that regulated prior steps in the releasing process. Feedback control
Steroid and thyroid hormones are bound to what? albumin, sex hormone-binding protein, or cortisol-binding globulin
Amines are transported by what ? serum proteins and thyroxine-binding globulin
What fraction of a hormone exhibits activity? only the free portion
What is responsible for hormone production? anterior pituitary
Serves as a storage area for certain hormones produced by the hypothalamus posterior pituitary
Part of the CNS that lies at the base of the brain above the pituitary hypothalamus
Occurs when the stimulating hormone induces production of a hormone, elevated levels of which turn off pituitary release of the stimulating hormone. Negative Feedback
Occurs when a structure secretes a hormone in response to a stimulating hormone released from the pituitary gland. The released hormone induces more stimulating hormone to be released from the pituitary gland. Positive feedback
Primary disorders focus on what? disorders of the pituitary gland
secondary disorders focus on what? disorders of the hypothalamus or may relate to ectopic production of pituitary hormones by nonendocrine tumors or to the hyposecretion of hormone by the target tissue.
hyposecretion in children can often lead to what disease? pituitary dwarfism
hypersecretion of FSH and LH can lead to what? sexual precocity and is usually a result of brain tumors in the region of the hypothalamus.
What regulates water reabsportion and blood pressure by affecting the renal tubules and the arterioles? Anti-diuretic hormone
What is the adrenal cortex comprised of? chromaffin cells
What are three adrenal hormones? glucocorticoids , mineralocorticosteroids, and catecholamines
Steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids, mineralocorticosteroids
Amine hormones produced in the adrenal medulla catecholamines
These adrenal hormones are synthesized from cholesterol glucocorticoids and mineral corticosteroids
Primary glucocorticoid produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex Cortisol
What are the functions of cortisol carb, lipid, a protein metabolism; suppression of inflammation; stimulating gluconeogenesis; increasing urine production; and stimulating erythropoiesis
What are the target tissues of glucocorticoid action kidney glomerulus and renal tubules, bone marrow stem cells, hepatocytes, and adipose tissue
How are mineral corticosteroids transported? bound to CBP and albumin
What is the primary action of mineral corticosteroids regulation of electrolytes
Primary mineralocorticoid produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex aldosterone
What are the functions of aldosterone stimulating sodium resorption in the distal convoluted tubules in exchange for potassium and hydrogen ; increasing blood volume ; regulating extracellular fluid volume
What are the target tissues of mineralocorticoids? distal renal tubules and the large intestine
How is aldosterone secretion regulated? via the renin/angiotensin system
Where is norepinephrine synthesized in the CNS
What are the functions of catecholamines? mobilization of energy stores by increasing blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar level ; neurotransmitter actions ; release in response to pain and emotional stress to mobilize organs
What are the tissue targets of catecholamines? liver and adipose tissue
80% of catecholamines are excreted into the urine as what? vanillymandelic acid (VMA)
Excess cortisol production, either at the level of the adrenal gland or by increased release of ACTH Cushing syndrome
Excess aldosterone production with symptoms of hypertension hyperaldosteronism
Adrenal hypofunction or insufficiency hypoadrenalism
Primary hypoadrenalism disease involving the adrenal cortex Addison’s disease
What is the major disorder of the adrenal medulla? pheochromocytoma
Bilobed endocrine gland located in the lower part of the neck that is composed of groups of cells called follicles thyroid gland
Follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce what hormones? thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland produce what? Calcitonin
What do thyroid hormones require for their synthesis? iodine
Is there more T3 or T4 in circulation? T3
98% of circulating T3 and T4 is bound to what? thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
Thyroid-releasing hormone is released by what organ? brain
Serum level of thyroid hormone that is insufficient to provide for the metabolic needs of cells. hypothyroidism
Symptoms of this disease include: goiters, fatigue, impairment of mental processes, and loss of appetite Hypothyroidism
Inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones caused by a damaged or surgically removed thyroid gland primary hypothyroidism
Decreased production of TSH caused by pituitary disorder leading to low serum levels of thyroid hormones secondary hypothyroidism
This is caused by hypothalamic failure leading to a lack of TRH production tertiary hypothyroidism
Genetic abnormality in the immune system and involves massive infiltrations of the thyroid gland by lymphocytes Hashimoto’s disease
Excessive thyroid hormone in circulation hyperthyroidism
Symptoms of this disease include weight loss, loss of muscle mass, hyperactivity, quick fatigability, insomnia, increased sweating, nervousness, palpitations, goiter, and bulging eyes hyperthyroidism
Autoimmune disorder that occurs sex times more frequently in women than men. Immunoglobulins stimulate the thyroid gland by binding to TSH receptors. Graves’ Disease
Involved in the metabolism of both calcium and phosphorus by the kidney and bone parathyroid hormone
Mineral proved to be essential for heart muscle contraction, hemostasis, and cell responsiveness calcium
Produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid Calcitonin
Serum calcium levels rise to >102 mg/dL or are sustained at levels >100 mg/L. hypercalcemia
Created by: ashleywest16