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Bio230 Ch 7 Quiz

Essential Cell Biology :From DNA to Protein

QuestionAnswer
1) What is the “central dogma”? Genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
2) Which base is not present in RNA? T
3) In RNA, which base pairs whit the base A? U
4) An RNNA molecule can fold into complex three- dimensional shapes because? it is single stranded.
5) All of the RNA in a cell is made by what process? Transcription
6) What determines the nucleotide sequence of an RNA strand? Complementary base pairing with the DNA template during transcription.
7) RNA polymerases join nucleotides through what kind of bond? Phosphodiester
8) An RNA chain elongates in what direction? 5’ to 3’
9) What energy drives the transcription reaction forward? The hydrolysis of high-energy bonds of ribonucleoside triphosphates during elongation
10) RNA polymerase can start an RNA chain without a primer. True or False? True
11) Compared to the error rate of DNA polymerase, the error of RNA polymerase is? much greater.
12) Some genes do not encode proteins, but instead encode functional RNA. True or False? True
13) To begin transcription, RNA polymerase recognizes nucleotide sequences in what region of the DNA? Promoter region
14) At which site on the DNA of a gene does RNA polymerase release its newly made RNA? Terminator
15) What is the name of the subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that recognizes the promoter of a gene? Sigma factor
16) In eukaryotes, what must assemble at a promoter before RNA polymerase can transcribe a gene? General transcription factors
17) The assembly of general transcription factors to a eukaryotic promoter begins at what site in a promoter? The TATA box
18) Bacterial mRNAs? are transcribed and translated simultaneously.
19) Eukaryotic mRNAs? are translated after they are exported from the nucleus.
20) Which of the following does not increase the stability of eukaryotic mRNAs? An intron
21) In bacteria, most protein-coding genes lack introns. True or False? True
22) Introns are removed by? RNA splicing in the nucleus.
23) In eukaryotes, which parts of a gene are transcribed into RNA? Introns and exons
24) Unlike the coding sequence of an exon, most of the nucleotide sequence of an intron is unimportant. True or False? True
25) What structure is responsible for selecting and transporting only properly processed eukaryotic mRNAs into the cytoplasm? The nuclear pore complex
26) In a eukaryotic mRNA, the poly-A tail promotes degradation of the molecule. True or False? False
27) Which of the following is well accepted in the scientific community? Neither—the evolution of introns is still a topic of debate.
28) Each nucleotide in an mRNA encodes one amino acid in a protein? False
29) How many nucleotides are necessary to specify a single amino acid? 3
30) In principle, how many reading frames in RNA can potentially be translated into proteins? 3
31) What is not true about codons in mRNA molecules? Some codons code for more than one amino acid.
32) Amino acids are attached to their tRNA molecules by? aaminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
33) An RNA message is decoded by? ribosomes
34) Within the ribosome, the formation of peptide bonds is catalyzed by? an RNA molecule in the large ribosomal subunit.
35) What is the term for an RNA molecule that possesses catalytic activity? Ribozyme
36) At which end of an mRNA molecule do ribosomal subunits first bind? The 5’ end
37) The translation of an mRNA begins at which start codon? AUG
38) In eukaryotes, the initiator tRNA always carries which amino acid? Methionine
39) Which part of a protein is synthesized by a ribosome first? The N-terminus
40) At what site does the charged initiator tRNA first bind on the ribosome? P site
41) At what site do all chared tRNAs first bind on the ribosome? A site
42) Stop codons are not recognized by tRNA. True or False? False
43) What is a polyribosome? A cluster of ribosomes translating the same mRNA at different sites along the mRNA
44) How do proteases act? By hydrolyzing peptide bonds between amino acids in a protein
45) Where in a cell are most damaged proteins broken? Cytosol
46) Proteasomes act primarily on proteins that have been marked for destruction by the covalent attachment of which small protein? Ubiquitin
47) Which type of molecule has the potential to perform the catalytic action of reproducing itself? RNA
48) Which biochemical reaction is catalyzed by a ribozyme? Peptide bond formation in protein synthesis
49) Which sugar cannot be readily made? Dioxyribose
Created by: Liwa91