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BIOL 1142 - Exam 3

gas exchange, renal physiology, fluid balance

hypoxia low oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
3 causes of hypoxia low oxygen in alveoli poor exchange between alveoli and blood poor transport
hemoglobin and oxygen binding >98% of oxygen is carried by hemoglobin; binding is reversible and depends largely on partial pressre of oxygen
oxygen saturation how many oxygens are attached to each hemoglobin, percentage of available sites used. At PO2 of 100mmHg, O2 saturation is 98%. At PO2 of 40mmHg O2 saturation is 75%.
transport of CO2 dissolved in plasma (about 7%), converted into bicarbonate (in red blood cells - about 70%, requires carbonic anhydrase), bound to hemoglobin (different location than O2 - about 22%)
factors that affect O2 binding to hemoglobin high partial pressure - binding low partial pressure - releasing high temperature - releasing low temperature - binding acidity (CO2) can also influence exercise also makes oxygen dissociate because of increased demand for oxygen in muscles
bicarbonate .
central pattern generator (CPG) .
medullary dorsal respiratory group (DRG) .
medullary ventral respiratory group (PRG) .
pH influence on ventilation .
functions of the kidneys .
blood supply to the nephron .
blood supply of the nephron .
segmental arteries .
interlobar arteries .
arcuate arteries .
cortical radiate arteries .
afferent arteriole .
glomerulus .
efferent arteriole .
peritubular capillaries .
vasa recta .
renal hilus .
nephron .
cortical nephrons .
juxtamedullary nephrons .
renal corpuscle .
Bowman's capsule .
renal tuble .
proximal convoluted tubule .
Loop of Henle .
distal convoluted tubule .
collecting duct .
filtrate .
urine .
medullary pyramid .
3 processes of urine formation .
volume and osmolarity changes at different parts of the nephron .
amount of urine output in a day 1.5 liters
examples of substances that are reabsorbed .
filtration .
podocytes .
vasopression (ADH) .
pressures that drive filtration .
pressure measurements in capillaries involved with filtration .
amount of filtrate pushed through the glomerulus each day .
glomular filtration rate (GFR) .
glomular filtration rate autoregulation .
reasorption .
unregulated reabsorption .
regulated reabsorption .
transcytosis .
maximum transport rate .
excretio .
cerebrospinal flud and reabsorption .
secretion .
systems that work together to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance .
urine concentation .
aquaporins .
countercurrent exchange system .
sodium balance .
aldosterone .
Renin-Angiotesnsin- Aldosterone pathway .
juxtaglomular apparatus .
renin .
(angiotensin converting enzyme)ACE .
things that affect fluid balance inputs from external environment, metabolic production, storage, reversible incorporation, excretion to external environment, metabolic consumption
total amount of fluid/intracellular/extracellular 42 L total/28 L intracellular/14 L extracellular (2.8 L plasma, 11.2 L interstitial fluid)
percent of body weight that is water 40-80%, depending on amount of adipose tissue
water content of different tissues bone - 22%, adipose - 10%
how fluid balance is maintained regulating extracellular fluid and osmolarity; volume is regulated to maintain blood pressure, osmolarity is regulated to maintain cell volume
short term control of fluid volume change and blood pressure baroreceptor reflex, fluid shift
long term control of fluid volume change and blood pressure kidneys - regulation of GFR, regulation of Na+ absorption
extracellular hypertonicity (dehydration) caused by insufficient water intake, excessive water loss, diabetes insipidous
extracellular hypotonicity (over-hydration) causes - renal failure, rapid ingestion of water, inappropriate vasopressin secretion (due to pain or trauma w/o blood loss)
ways that fluid volume can change water loss - sweating, vomiting, diarrhea blood loss - hemhorrhage (isosmotic, no osmolarity change)
increase in pH increased basicness, causes hyperexcitability
decrease in pH increased acidity, causes hypoexcitability
why pH is important enzymes, channel proteins, nervous system function are all pH sensitive. changes in pH influence hydrogen bodning which influences protein shape and function.
acid input Foods and metabolic activity produce acids. organic acids - amino acids, fatty acids, lactic acid, citric acid cycle intermediates
base input negligible
buffers proteins phosphate ions bicarbonate
pH homeostatic controls buffers (proteins, phosphate ions, bicarbonate); ventilation (carbon dioxide removal increases/decreases), renal regulation (secretion of H+)
ideal pH for cells 6.8-8.0, 7.4 is ideal
percentage of excess acid removed through different methods 75% respiration, 25% kidneys
bicarbonate HCO3, main buffer in the blood
hyperexcitability caused by increased (basic) pH; results in muscle twitch, tetnae
hypoexcitability casused by decreased (acidic) pH; CNS depression - confusion, disorientation, loss of consciousness, coma, death
diabetes insipidus issues with production or reception of vasopressin; tasteless "water" urine (no sugar)
high osmolarity in extracellular fluid water moves out of the cell, cell shrinks
low osmolarity in extracelluar fluid water moves into the cell, cell bursts
examples of metabolically produced substances that produce water as a byproduct glucose, cholesterol
Created by: pinklrt98



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