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therapeutic drug mon

the range that exists between the minimum effective concentration and the minimum toxic concentration therapeutic window
minimum effective concetration MEC
Minimum toxic concentration MTC
subtherapeutic drug has no measurable effect on patient
toxic 100% effective but to an extent that causes injury to the patient
What does LADME system do describes change of drug concentration with time in your body
what are the three types of dosage forms tablets and capsules, ointment, suppository
What does L stand for in the LADME liberation
What does liberation mean process by which a drug is released from a dosage form thus passing into solution
in this dosage form, gastric fluid dissolves covering immediately tablets and capsules
this form of dosage is liberated when water from sweat mixes with the dosage and reabsorbs through sweat glands ointment
this dosage liberation method is via rectal fluids dissolving and then absorbing through blood vessels suppository
this dosage form is normally in a package that part is readily disolved while the other is dissolved after the stomach controlled release
what does A stand for in LADME absorbance
when the drug molecule is taken up into circulation or plasma compartment is known as absorbance
What are the three mechanisms of absorbance passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated transport
this mechanism of absorbance is most predominant and works by concentration gradient and membrane potential (large to small) passive diffusion
this mechanism of absorbance involves the transport against concentration gradient with carrier molecule and ATP active transport
this mechanism of absorbance involves a carrier molecule with concentration gradient facilitated transport
What does the D stand for in the LADME system distribution
the active drug absorbed into blood vessels and distributed to the tissues is known as what distribution
What is the average distribution time 30 min to 2 hours
What does the M in the LADME system stand for metabolism
this is the conversion of the parent drug (active) into one or more metabolites biotransformation
What two organs are involved with the metabolism of drugs liver and kidney
which is less toxic-the metabolite or parent drug metabolite, there are exceptions
What does the E stand for in the LADME system Elimination
this means excreted from the body either in the form of the parent drug or as a metabolite elimination
what are the major routes for elimination liver and kidney
how is a drug excreted via the liver in bile and comes out in feces
how is a drug excreted via the kidney parent or metabolite in urine
This is the time required to reduce blood concentration of the drug to half of the dosage given half-life
high-performance liquid chromatography 1. liquid phase is perculated through the column 2. these beads within the column will interact with the drug 3. drugs exit at different times 4. each drug is detected and recorded
what does felbamate treat epilepsy
another name for felbamate is felbatol
used for primary therapy of partial seizures used when all other drug treatment fails felbamate
this drug carries the risk of aplastic anemia and liver failure felbamate
Another name for neurontin is gabapentin
this medication is used for the effective treatment of drug resistant partial seizures and also back surgery gabapentin
this drug promotes the release of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) gabapentin
this is a potent inhibitor of presynaptic discharges GABA
what is another mane for lamictal lamotrigine
this medication binds to GABA receptors and is an agonist lamotrigine
this medication can be anti-folate and is associated with severe rashes lamictal
what is another name for levetiracetam keppra
this medication is used for adjunctive therapy and treatment of partial onset seizures levetiracetam
this medication has no pharmacokinetic interaction between levetiracetam and other antiepileptic drugs levetiracetam
another name for oxcarbazepine is trileptal
this medication is used for therapy of partial seizurs with and without secondary generalized seizures oxcarbazepine
this medication is used in the control of all seizures except for petite mal phenobarbital
phenobarbital is metabolized where liver
this medication reduces synaptic transmission, via increasing seizure thresholds so more neurotrasmitter is needed to precipitated a seizure and also inhibits synaptic discharge phenobarbital
phenobarbital is known for it's long half-life
what is another name for dilantin phenytoin
this medication is used for the control of all seizures phenytoin
this medication modulates sodium and potassium atpase that results in the blockage on neurotransmitter release dilantin
where is phenytoin metabolized liver
what is another name for tiagabine gabitril
this medication is used as an adjuctive therapty for the treatment of partial seizures given along with at least one other antiepileptic drug tiagabine
what is another name for topiramate topamax
this medication is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug topiramate
this medication blocks seizure spread rather than raising seizure potential topiramate
what is another name for valproic acid depakote
this medication is used for treatment of absent seizures volproic acid
this medication inhibits the nonrenal clearance of phenobarbital resulting in elevated plasma phenobarbital valproic acid
Digoxin, lidocaine, quinidine, procainamide, and amiodarone are all what kind of drugs cardiac meds
What is another name for digoxin lanoxin
This medication is derived from the digitalis plant digoxin
What dosage form is digoxin in powdered form as tablets or capsules
this drug reduces the concentration gradient between sodium and potassium thus allowing calcium to move into the muscle, cells increase the refractory period of the AV node of the heard digoxin
this medication allows the heard to pump more blood giving an increased cardiac output digoxin
this medication is used in the management of tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure digoxing
digoxin is concentrated where tissue
how are therapeutic ranges determined for digoxin peak tissue concentrations
where is digoxin metabolized in liver excreted in urin
how is digoxin monitored immunoassay
what is another name for lidocaine xylocaine
this is the drug of choice for initial therapy of PVC and may prevent atrial fibrillation of the heart After AMI lidocaine
this medication shortens the action potential refractory period in Purkinje fibers of the heart lidocaine
lidocain can be administered how inner ventral or muscular-heart
this medication is used in the treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation, it increases the threshold membrane potential quinidine
this medication has a very similar action as quinidine procainamide
this medication produces a metabolite-N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA that has a similar effect as it's parent drug procainamide
what is N-acetylprocainamide parent drug procainamide
this medication is used to control supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias amiodarone
amiodarone has what kind of half life long
this medication can interact with thyroid hormone receptors to cause toxicity amiodarone
When amiodarone interacts with thyroid hormone receptors to cause toxicity what condition is associated with this grave's disease
theophyllines is what type of medication bronchodilator
this medication relaxes bronchial smooth muscle to relieve or prevent asthma theophyllines
this medication's metabolite is caffeine theophyllines
theophyllines have what as it's metabolite caffeine
this medication is given to newborns when suffering from sleep apnea theophyllines
aminoglycosides are what kind of medication antibiotics
this medication binds to ribosomal subunites to prevent protein synthesis aminoglycosides
the goal of this drug is to kill bacteria aminoglycosides
lithium is what kind of medication antipsychotic med
this medication is used for the treatment of the manic phase of manic depressive illness lithium
what is the method of determination for lithium ISE
this medication enhances the reuptake of catecholamines producing a sedating affect lithium
what is another name for imiprimine tofranil
imiprimine is what kind of drug antidepressant
this medication is used to elevate moods imiprimine
what medication is an antimetabolite methotrexate
this medication is used in the management of ALL in children and carcinoma of the breast, tongue and testes methotrexate
methotrexate does what to dna synthesis inhibits
this medication inhibits dna synthesis by preventing pyrimidine from being formed, ultimately slowing down cell division methotrexate
methotrexate is what kind of drug in terms of cells it affets nonspecific
methothrexate can lead to what due to its lack in specificity myelosupression
what is the method of determination for methotrexat immunoassay
cyclo sporine is what kind of medication immunosuppressant
cyclosporin is isolated from what fungus trichoderma polysporum
this medication is used to suppress host vs graft rejection in organ transplants cyclosporine
this medication prevents the poliferation of lymphocytes ultimately decreasing immunity cyclosporine
what is the method of determination for cyclosporine HPLC
mycophenolate mofetil has another name as cellcept
what type of medication is mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppressant
this medication is the fermentative product of several penicillium species mycophenolate mofetil
this medication inhibits the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) that is utilized by poliferating lymphocytes mycophenolate mofetil
What cell type does mycophenolate mofetil arrest the poliferation of t-cells
what is the method of determination for mycophenolate mofetil immunoassay
What are the five important parameters that must be determined on patients with toxic reactions amount of agent, route of administration, number of doses, time period of administration, lethal dosage
What does amount of agent introduced into a person mean what has been taken
how a toxin has been introduced to the body is what route of administration
number of doses can be either acute or chronic
this helps determine if a toxic reaction is an acute or chronic time period of administration
this is the amount of a substance to cause death lethal dosage
what are the five ways a toxic agent may effect the body interference with the action of enzymes, blockage of Hb/O2 transport, interference with cell function, interference with dna and rna synthesis, hypersensitivity reaction
two types of interference with the action of enzyme systems in the body are irreversible enzyme inhibition and inhibition of oxygen transfer
insecticides-acetylchoinesterase which cause loss of neuromuscular control is an example of what thy pof interference of enzymes irreversible enzyme inhibition
cyanide-cytochrome oxidase which decreases ATP production (cell dies due to no energy) is an example of what kind of interference of enzymes inhibition of oxygen transfer
what is an example of the blockage of Hb/O2 transport Hb has a higher affinity to carbon monoxide
what is an example of interference with cell function anesthetics- affecting membrane potential
what is an example of interference of DNA and RNA synthesis mustard gas
What is an example of hypersensitivity reaction toxic shock, anaphylactic shock
barbiturates, benzodiazepine, and methaqualine are what kind of drugs depressants
phenobarbital, pentobarbital, secobartital are all under what type of drug barbiturates
valium and librium are under what type of drug benzodiazepine
this type of medication is a used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness analgesics
this medication can lower body temperature and are anti inflammatory analgesics
morphine, heroin, codeine, and methadone are all what kind of medications narcotics-analgesics
salicylates and acetaminophen are both what kind of medication nonperscription analgesics
acetaminophen in combination with this drug can cause the liver to shutdown alcohol
imipramine is an example of what kind of medication tricyclics
tricyclics do what? elevate mood
these drugs have no medical usage hallucinogens
LCD and mescaline are what kind of drugs hallucinogens
amphetamine and cocaine are what kind of drugs stimulants
these medications are no long used therapeutically and are very potent CNS stimulants stimulants
marijuana, THC, and hashish are what types of drug cannabis
this type of drug has very minimal medicinal use cannabis
how long is the half life of THC 1 day, chronic users 3-5
serum levels decrease what percent after you have smoked a joint (about an hour) 10%
what toxic agents cause cellular hypoxia carbon monoxide and cyanide
this is the most common of the caseous poisons carbon monoxide
what specimen should be used for carbon monoxide whole blood
% saturation of Hg by CO is how what is determined carbon monoxide
this is a colorless gase with the odor of almonds cyanide
when inhaled this drug is rapidly bound to the heme of hemoglobin causing hypoxia cyanide
how are levels of cyanide measured ISE or GC-MS
this drug has the highest blood levels than any other toxic agent alchohol
where is the specimen for an alcohol test collected from venipuncture without cleaning via alcohol
what are the two main alcohols ethanol and methanol
methanol can form what metabolite formaldehyde
how is methanol poisoning treated with ethanol
where is arsenic found herbicides and fungicides
this toxic substance tends to mimic other disorders arsenic
when considering acute arsenic poisoning what sample should be collected urine
when considering chronic arsenic poisoning what sample should be collected hair or nails
arsenic has and affinity to bind with what protein keratin
this type of poisoning is one of the most serious metallic poisons lead
how are adults normally exposed to lead industrial setting
how are children normally exposed to lead dirt, paint chips, soil, toy recalls
lead inhibits what production heme
why is analysis hard for lead lower levels
What are four drug screening techniques TLC, Immunoassay, urine
what is the purpose of doing a drug screening test separate negatives from positives
this kind of test must be rapid and accurately identify the drug screening test
when should a conformation drug test be used on a positive screen
this test must specifically identify the drug conformation test
What is TLC thin layer chromatography
what are the five steps in TLC sample prep, drug isolation and extraction, development, visualization, interpretation
two strengths to TLC can be used for a wide range of drugs, no measure instrumentation
what are the two weaknesses of TLC least sensitive, reliable, and precise, and no permanent record
this is the best method for screening drugs immunoassay
what types of labels can be used in an immunoassay radioactive, enzyme, and fluorescent
what is the principal immunoassay uses competitive binding
what are the strengths of immunoassay sensitive and accurate, precision may vary though
what is a drug confirmation technology gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
what is the best method for confirmation of drug abuse gas chromatography and mass spec
what does gas chromatography do separates different drugs present in blood
mass spec does what to the drug fragment it via bombardment of electrons
mass spec looks for this of a drug molecular fingerprint
what are the strengths of gas chromatography and mass spec accurate, sensitive, precise and specific
What are some weaknesses of mass spec and gas chromatography labor intensive, special training, data interpretation, time consuming, very expensive
What does a negative drug screening test mean drug is not present or below at the sensitivity of the test
a positive drug screen means confirmatory test is needed and or drug or metabolite may be present
a positive drug confirmation means what drug is present and has been used recently
what does a drug confirmation not imply that there was intoxication
Created by: jnwells03