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Midterm 4

Physiology 2420

TRUE/ FALSE The force that moves air into and out of the lungs is the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and alveolus. true
TRUE/FALSE Internal respiration refers to the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by cells. true
What is the term for the volume of air moved into the lungs every minute? minute ventilation
What is the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing called? tidal volume
The surface tension of the alveolus is reduced by surfactants produced by what type of cells? type II alveolar
The compliance of the lungs can be determined by measuring the change in ________ for a given change in ________. lung volume; transpulmonary pressure
At rest, expiration is a(n) ________ process that involves ________. passive : relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
As the volume of the lung increases, atmospheric pressure ________. will not change
What type of cell in the respiratory tract functions in phagocytosis of inhaled pathogens and foreign particles? macrophages
Site where filtrate enters renal tubules. Bowman's capsule
This tubule drains into the minor calyces. collecting duct
In juxtamedullary nephrons, this region sets up the medullary osmotic gradient. loop of Henle
Located entirely within the cortex, reabsorption of water and certain solutes from this region is under hormonal control. distal tubule
Transports urine from kidneys to bladder. ureter
Filters the blood to regulate its composition. kidneys
Provides negative feedback to FSH secretion, but not LH in both males and females. inhibin
Triggers ovulation in females. LH
True/False. The corpus luteum degenerates once fertilization occurs. False
True/False. Both the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone True
True/False. During the follicular phase, 10-25 follicles begin to develop but only one will usually be released at ovulation. True
Which layer of the uterus is shed during menstration? endometrium
The Mullerian ducts under normal conditions develop into the reproductive structures of what gender? female
Which part of the blastocyst develops into the fetus? inner cell mass
Milk production is stimulated by the release of which hormone? prolactin
Name two hormones secreted by the corpus luteum. Estrogen, progesterone, inhibin
What is the corpus albicans? Scar tissue resulting from a degenerated corpus luteum
In sperm, what is the acrosome? Contains enzymes in the head of the sperm to facilitate fertilization
Males are born with a finite number of spermatogonia, however the pool of potential sperm is never depleted. Why? After mitosis in spermatogonia, one daughter cell becomes a mature sperm. The other daughter cell remains a spermatogonium.
Name two of the four Starling forces within the renal corpuscle. Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, Glomerular osmotic pressure, Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure, Bowman’s capsule osmotic pressure
What two structures make up the renal corpuscle? Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus
Compared to the distal tubule, the proximal tubule has (tighter / leakier) tight junctions. leakier
________ is a measure of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidneys. clearance
The clearance of ________ provides a measure of renal plasma flow rate. PAH
The clearance of ________, a natural by-product of muscle metabolism, provides a non-invasive estimate of glomerular filtration rate. 35. creatinine
Name one of the two factors that determine lung compliance. lung elasticity, surface tension
(Ciliated cells / Goblet cells) are inhibited by smoking, which leads to the familiar "smoker's cough" ciliated cells
What is the function of alveolar type II cells? Secrete surfactant
A decrease in ________ is indicative of a restrictive pulmonary disease (I’m looking for a pulmonary function test). vital capacity
Created by: GracieLou



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