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ENG1131 A

Pre midterm

Noise, provide examples Barriers/distractions Channel overload, physical/technical, emotional, environmental
Internal communication between members of the organization
External communication between members of org and general public
Upward communication subordinate to superiour
Downward communication superior to subordinate
horizontal/lateral communication communication within same level
Business communication to perform and to persuade
When writing you should know your receivers.... purpose
6 things to know when writing Your reader Size of audience Environmental interferences Readers level of understanding Preferences and expectations Your personal history with reader
Keypoint: be less... selfish in communicating, consider what your reader needs to know.
Your job is to be a filter, and be able to include information that is needed.
in terms of content, ensure information is accurate, ethical, and sufficient
Select channel of communication that corresponds to... own needs and receivers needs
5 things to consider when selecting a channel type of volume of detail level of accuracy of channel speed required and feedback time richness of medium secrecy
Advantages/disadvantages of reports good for high volume, formality, high detail bad for instand feedback
adv/dis of letters adv: intimacy and formality dis: slow in general
adv of memos good for internal communication, better for record keeping
adv/dis of emails good for attachments, instant communication, long distances bad for formality (sound cold), emotion, sensitive situations
adv of faxes good for visuals, and record keeping, written signature
Adv/ dis of written in general good for detail, planning, advanced-thinking bad for emotional content
adv/dis of oral good for emotions bad for no records
adv/dis of electronics in general good for speed, distance, and feedback bad for emotion, and formality
Email is not a rich channel because there is... no tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions
Email works well with... basic routines People in different time zones Control Referencing previous conversations
Email doesn't work well with Emotionally sensitive information People who can't write emails Highly sensitive, detailed, secret information Conflict resolution
Front loading emphasis is placed on main ideas through structuring of paragraphs, and emails with main ideas "loaded first"
Direct approach is good if your audiences reaction is... It is direct because readers don't want to filter through information. eager, pleased, interested, or neutral Starts off with main idea, and important points. Information supported with detail after.
Use indirect approach when the audiences reaction is... displeased. Neutral statement acts as transition to the bad news(body) Close warmly without mentioning bad news.
If the audience is unwilling/uninterested. capture their attention with statement or question, develop interest in body request action
Active voice Subject is acting Emphasizes/draws attention to subject Encourages action Stresses who needs to make something happen, not what needs to happen
Passive voice Subject is acted upon Draws attention to the object being acted upon Stresses what needs to happen, not who should do it. Bad for instructions/warnings indirect, softens the blow
Parallel structure Be consistent, give equal weight to items in list. same grammatical form
For a bad news letter use direct approach if... The reader is already expecting bad news, if its urgent to save readers time
For bad news letter use indirect approach if... the reader is not prepared for bad news the reader has emotional investment in news To soften the blow To continue good relations with reader to welcome feedback
What are the goals of a bad news letter? Communicate bad news, and gain acceptance. Maintain as much goodwill as possible preserve reputation of self and organization
What is a buffer? A buffer is a neutral statement used to establish common ground. Serves as a smooth transaction to the bad news. Communicates respect to reader.
Block style format Not indented, justified to the edge
Modified block style Signature is in centre of page
White space Enough to give readers a break, allows emphasis of important points.
Comma splices Joining two ideas (independent clauses using only a comma. Can be fixed by including a conjunction or a semi colon. (FANBOYS) For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
Run-on sentences Lack of punctuation
Sentence fragment Sentence lacking verb, key idea. (action) Dependent and independent clauses
Persuasion The ability to make people think or do what you would like tem to think or do.
Writing plan for a persuasive request GBRM Gain attention in the opening Build interest in body Reduce resistance Motivate action
Created by: wli043



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