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Inherited problems

Question Answer
Euploid cells Cells with a normal number of chromosomes
Polyploid cells Cells with more then the diploid number of chromosomes
Tripliody cells Cells with three copies of each chromosome
Tetraploidy A Cell with 92 chromosomes
What is the difference between polyploidy and Aneuploidy? Aneuploidy refers to a numerical change in part of the chromosome set, whereas polyploidy refers to a numerical change in the whole set of chromosomes.
Aneuploidy A cell that does not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes
Monosomy A cell with only one copy of its chromosome
Trisomy A cell with three copies of the one chromosome
Autosomal aneuploidy Aneuploidy of any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Sex chromosome aneuploidy Aneuploidy of chromosomes X and Y
Partial trisomy A cell which has an extra portion of a chromosome
Down syndrome Autosomal trisomy of chromosome 21
Trisomy X (XXX) Common sex chromosome aneuploidy in females: they inherit three X chromosomes instead of two, causing no overt physical abnormalities, but can cause sterility, menstrual irregularity, or mental retardation.
Monosomy X (X) Chromosome disorder of females from inheriting only one X chromosome. Results in Turner Syndrome, characterized by short stature, webbing of the neck, widely spaces nipples, reduced carrying angle of the elbow, and underdeveloped breasts.
Klinefelter Syndrome Chromosome disorder of males from inheriting two X chromosomes and 1 Y chromosome. Causes sterility, female-like breasts, high pitched voice, mental retardation.
Cri du chat syndrome Genetic defect causes by deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. Characteristics include, a cry "like a cat", low birth weight, severe mental retardation, microcephaly, & heart defects.
A deficiency of genetic material is _____ harmful then excess more
Inversion When two break take place on a chromosome followed by reinsertion of the missing fragment at its original site, but in an inverted order. Called "balanced" alterations.
Translocations The interchange of genetic material between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Reciprocal translocation When two different chromosomes break and exchange information
Robertson Translocation The long arms of two nonhomologous chromosomes fuse at the centromere, forming a single chromosome.
Created by: 1137517268