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Patho

my patho terms

QuestionAnswer
The nucleic acid that contains all of an individual's genes. Found in the nucleus of every cell. Different cells are different because, though they contain the same DNA, they use different genes. DNA
A region on DNA that contains the "code" for making one protein. Genes
Different forms of a gene. (Example: the gene that determines eye color may have the brown allele,blue allele,...) Alleles
An allele that is always expressed. Dominant
An allele that will be expressed only when the person is homozygous. It is hidden or partially hidden in the presence of a dominant allele. Recessive
A two letter code that describes which alleles a person has. (AA, Aa, aa,....) Genotype
Having the same 2 alleles for a gene Homozygous
Having different alleles for a gene Heterozygous
The allele that we can see evidence of. For example, if someone has blue eyes it is because the blue allele is being expressed. If someone has hemophilia A it is because the allele for it is being expressed. Expressed
Describes what characteristics are produces as a result of having a certain genotype. (sickle cell anemia, tall, short, colorblind are characteristics (phenotypes) cause by genetics. Phenotype
The combinations of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are visible under a standard light microscope. Chromosomes
Chromosome pairs 1-22 Autosomes
the 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans Sex chromosomes
Describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes. Karyotype
Having the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes. Diploid
Having an abnormal number of chromosomes Aneuploid
Missing a chromosome. Monosomy 18, for example, means that the perons has only one copy of chromosome #18 (has the normal number of the other chromosomes) Monosomy
Having an extra copy of a chromosome. Trisomy
The percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells hematocrit
The average size of a red blood cell. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
A group of diseases that decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. Anemias
A group of diseases that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts. Leukemias
Having an abnormally high number of erythrocytes. (also called erythrocytosis) Polycythemia
A decrease in the number of all normal blood cells. Pancytopenia
A decrease in the number of white blood cells Leukopenia
Having a low number of platelets. Thrombocytopenia
A genetic decrease in the activity of one of the clotting factors. Hemophilia
A group of genentic anemias resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of globin chains. Thallasemias
Any factor from within the body. Intrinsic Factor (general definition)
A protein secreted by gastric glands that is needed for the absorption of vitamin B-12. Intrinsic Factor (for pernicious anemia)
Any factor coming from outside of the body. Extrinsic Factor (general definition)
Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin) Extrinsic Factor (for pernicious anemia)
Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds. Auscultation
An ultrasound of the heart. Echocardiography
An electrocardiagram perfomed while the heart rate is elevated. Stress Test
A contrast x-ray showing circulation. Angiography
Proteins released from damaged cardiac tissue into the blood; used as a diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction. Cardiac Markers
Having a normal rhythm established by the sinoatrial node. Normal Sinus Rhythm
having a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute Bradycardia
Having a resting heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia
The inability of a valve to either open or close properly. Valvular Incompetence
The inability of a valve to open completely. Valvular Stenosis
When one of the AV valves swings up into the atrium when it should be closed. Valvular Prolapse
The build up of fatty deposits (plaque) within blood vessels. Atherosclerosis
Hardening of arteries. Arteriosclerosis
A local decrease in blood flow due to obstruction. Ischemia
Chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia. Angina Pectoris
Ischemic necrosis of heart muscle. Commonly called heart attack. Myocardial Infarctions
A temporary decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia. Can affect sensory, integrative, or motor functions, usually lasting less than 48 hours. (Transient Ischemic Attack). TIA
Ischemic necrosis of the cerebrum. (AKA a cerebrovascular accident or stroke) Cerebral Infarction
Chronic high blood pressure that is a complication of another condition. Secondary Hypertension
Chronic high blood pressure of unknown origin. Primary (Essential) Hypertension
Localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall. Aneurysm
Coughing up blood from the lungs. Hemoptysis
A lack of oxygen. Hypoxia
An excess of carbon dioxide. Hypercapnea
A decrease in the pH of body fluids as a result of a buildup of carbon dioxide. Respiratory Acidosis
A partial or complete collapse of lung tissue. Atelectasis
The presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura. Pneumothorax
A group of over-inflated alveoli. Bullae
A lesion caused by pepsin. Peptic Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum. Duodenal Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach. Gastric Ulcer
A lesion in the mucosal lining of the esophagus. Esophageal Ulcer
A pouch of sac that develops off of a tubular structure such as the intestine. Diverticulum
Inflammation of a pouch or sac opeing off of a tubular structure. Diverticulitis.
The presence of diverticula within the intestines. Diverticulosis
The presence of stones within the gall bladder or biliary ducts. Cholethiasis
A disease of nervous tissue. Neuropathy
A disease of muscle tissue. Myopathy
A contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine. Intravenous Pyelogram
A blood test used as in indicator of kidney function. It measures the quantity of urea, which is a waste product of protein metabolism. (Blood urea nitrogen). BUN
A measure of kidney function that compares the quantity of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine Clearance
Using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy
A lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane. Ulcer
Narrowing of the arteries. Arteriostenosis
A decrease in the number of red blood cells. Erythrocytopenia
Created by: Baker RAD 2012