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Ch. 16 Bold Terms

Physiology 2420

QuestionAnswer
the process of gas exchange within the body respiration
cellular respiration that occurs in the mitochondria internal respiration
the exchange of gas and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the tissues of the body external respiration
the movement of air into and out of the lungs by bulk flow pulmonary ventilation
air passages in the head and the neck; include the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and pharynx upper airways
a passageway leading from the mouth to the esophagus or larynx that serves as a common passage way for food and air pharynx
air passages leading from pharynx to lungs respiratory tract
the initial passageway of the respiratory tract, which contains the vocal cords larynx
opening to the larynx glottis
a flap of tissue over the glottis that prevents food or water from entering the larynx when swallowing epiglottis
cartilaginous tube of respiratory tract, located between the larynx and the bronchi trachea
branched tubes of the respiratory tract, located between the trachea and bronchioles of the lungs bronchi
branches off the bronchi leading to the lungs secondary bronchi
small tubules leading from the bronchi to the alveoli; less than 1 mm thick bronchioles
bronchioles that lead directly to the airways of the respiratory zone of the respiratory tract; the last component of the conducting zone terminal bronchioles
hairlike processes found on certain epithelial cells in the respiratory tract and oviduct cilia
epithelial cells in the respiratory tract and GI tract that secrete mucus goblet cells
small tubules of the respiratory tract located between terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts respiratory bronchioles
clusters of alveoli at the end of an alveolar duct alveolar sacs
terminal sacs of the respiratory tract, where most gas exchange occurs; usually grouped in clusters alveoli
epithelial cells lining alveoli type I alveolar cells
the structure across which gas exchange occurs in the lungs; a barrier between blood and air consisting of capillary endothelial cells and their basement membranes and alveolar epithelial cells and their basement membranes respiratory membrane
structures that protect lungs and form an airtight compartment around them; include the rib cage, sternum, thoracic vertebrae, muscles, and connective tissues. chest wall
muscles of expiration that are located between the ribs internal intercostals
inspiratory muscles of the chest wall external intercostals
primary inspiratory muscle for respiration; the muscle partition that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities diaphragm
the membrane that lines the chest wall and lung, forming a pleural sac around each lung pleura
membrane surrounding each lung pleural sac
a fluid-filled compartment located between the lungs and chest wall; is bounded by the visceral and parietal pleura intrapleural space
pressure of outside air; at sea level, 760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere atmospheric pressure (Patm)
the pressure exerted by the air within the alveoli intra-alveolar pressure (Palv)
the pressure of the fluid inside the pleural space intrapleural pressure (Pip)
the difference between the intrapleural pressure and the intra-alveolar pressure, which represents the distending pressure acting on the lungs transpulmonary pressure
the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a resting expiration functional residual capacity (FRC)
condition in which air enters the pleural space, causing the lungs to collapse and the chest wall to expand pneumothorax
law showing the inverse relationship between pressure and volume Boyle's law
detergent-like substance secreted by type II alveolar cells; decreases the surface tension in the lungs pulmonary surfactant
type II alveolar cells cells that line alveoli and secrete surfactant
device for measuring lung volume spirometer
measures of the amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs under certain conditions lung volumes
the volume of air that moves unto and out of the lungs during a normal, unforced breath tidal volume
the maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the end of a normal inspiration inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
the maximum volume of air that can be expired from the end of normal expiration expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration residual volume (RV)
the maximum volume of air that can be inspired at the end of a resting expiration inspiratory capacity (IC)
the maximum volume of air that can be expired following a maximum inspiration vital capacity (VC)
the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a maximum inspiration total lung capacity (TLC)
the maximum amount of air a person can forcefully expire following a maximum inspiration forced vital capacity (FVC)
a measure of the percentage of the forced vital capacity that can be exhaled withing a certain time frame forced expiratory volume (FEV)
the total amount of air that flows into or out of the respiratory system in a minute minute ventilation
frequency of breaths respiration rate
conducting zone of the respiratory tract; air in this region does not participate in gas exchange anatomical dead space
a measure of the volume of fresh air reaching the alveoli each minute, which is minute ventilation corrected for dead space volume alveolar ventilation
Created by: GracieLou