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BIOL 1142 - Quiz 3

blood vessels, blood pressure, blood, immune system, breathing

blood flow to the brain vs. blood flow to other organs blood flow to the brain never changes, blood flow to other organs is variable
Amount of blood flow to different organs at rest brain - 14%, heart - 4%, liver/digestive tract - 27%, kidneys - 20%, skeletal muscle - 21%, skin - 5%, bone and other tissues - 9%
diversion of blood blood can be diverted away from organs that receive more than they need by changes in arterial diameter
blood flow and pressure gradients flows from high to low, flow of blood is directly proportional to the pressure gradient inversely proportional to vascular resistance
blood pressure the force the blood exerts on vessel walls, measured in mmHg; highest in the arteries, lowest in the veins; fluctuates in relation to ventriculuar systole (systolic pressure) and ventricular diastole (diastolic pressure)
things that influence flow 1. pressure difference 2. length of the tube (n/a) 3. viscosity of fluid (n/a) 4. diameter of the tube
resistance and blood flow the diameter of the vessels has an inverse relationship with flow. larger diameter, less resistance. resistance can be calculated by taing the inverse of the radius to the 4th power. Flow = 1/R.
characteristics of blood vessels all have endothelium lining (continuous with the lining of the heart); arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins
functions of arteries rapid transit passageways, pressure reservoir (stretch and recoil to maintain pressure during blood volume changes due to systole and diastole
bimodal flow on/off; heart has bimodal flow
continuous flow capillaries
ascultation listening to the sounds of the body
direct measure of blood pressure pressure sensor inserted directly into an artery
indirect measure of blood pressure sphygmomanonmetry - using a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer placed on the brachial artery
Korotkoff sounds first = systolic pressure, last = diastolic pressure
ascultation and blood pressure wide vessels - no sound; totally constricted - no sound; constricted - sound from wall vibrations
normal blood pressure 120/80
hypertension high blood pressure, 140/90 at rest
pulse pressure wave felt in an artery; normal pulse is 70 BPM
pulse pressure systolic pressure - diastolic pressure; normal is 40 (120-80)
mean arterial pressure diastolic pressure - 1/3 pulse pressure; average is 93 (spend more time at lower pressure); baroreceptors respond to mean arterial pressure
4 things that influence mean arterial pressure 1. blood volume 2. cardiac output 3. peripheral resistance 4. blood distribution
blood volume increases and blood pressure fast response - decreased heart rate, vasodilation slow response - kidneys flush excess water, increase urine output
blood volume decreases and blood pressure only way to restore volume is through fluids via drinking or IV; cardiovascular system compensates by increasing heart rate, vasoconstruction; decrease urine output to prevent additional loss
hypotension low blood pressure
vasovagal syncope fainting; not enough blood to the brain
4 types of shock 1. cardiogenic 2. hypovolemic 3. septic 4. anaphylactic
cardiogenic shock heart problem results in low or absent blood pressure
hypovolemic shock bleeding out; significant loss of blood volume
septic shock systemwide infection, usually bacterial. Toxins cause vasodilation and low BP
anaphylactic shock allergic reaction, systemic response, release of histamine results in inflammation whcih causes vasodilation and low BP combined with airway constriction
arteriole function distribute cardiac output to appropriate organs, regulate arterial BP
arterioles and mean arterial pressure arterioles have a large MAP decrease - 98 mmHG to 37 mmHg (increased resistance due to smaller diameter of vessels)
vasoconstriction constriction of blood vessels, decrease in diameter
vasodilation dilation of blood vessels, increase in diameter
vascular tone normal state of partial constriction; smooth muscle is responsible for this because of Ca++ leak channels
how vasodilation and vasoconstriction are controlled local control or extrinsic; smooth muscle responds to chemical, mechanical and neural signals
local control of arteriole resistance often overrides extrinsic control, happens due to chemical or mechanical signals that change due to metabolic activity
extrinsic control of arteriole resistance sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine and alpha1 receptors cause vasoconstriction; other hormonal controls - epinephrine from adrenal gland acts on beta2 receptors to cause bronchodilation; angiotensin II and vasopressin are powerful vasoconstrictors
capillaries smallest blood vessels, responsible for exchange of material via diffusion and bulk flow; thin walls, narrow lumen, extensive branches, high surface area, slow flow
histamine neurotransmitter that triggers inflammatory response
chemical signals that act as local controls oxygen, carbon dioxide, acid, potassium levels
mechanical signals that act as local controls temperature, shear stress, stretch
hormones and extrinsic control norepinephrine, epinephrine, angiotensin II, vasopressin
sympathetic nervous system and extrinsic control causes vasoconstriction
bulk flow flow of particles that can be dissolved in water through capillary beds
permeability of capillaries 3 types: continuous (not very permeable), fenestrated (medium permability, intestines, kidneys), sinusoidal (very permeable, liver, spleen, bone marrow)
flow rate in capillaries equal to cardiac output in all segments; increased surface area, increased diffusion
flow velocity in capillaries inversely proportional to cross-sectional area; increased surface area, decreased blood flow
anatomy of capillaries single layer of endothelial cells and a basement membrane; have precapillary sphincters that "close" capillaries
capillary hydrostatic pressure 37 mmHg at arteriole end of capillary bed, 17 mmHg at venule end of capillary bed
forces that affect bulk flow blood pressure, capillary hydrostatic pressure (outward), plasma colloid osmotic pressure (inward), interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (inward, negligible), interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (outward, negligible)
net exchange and bulk flow outward forces - inward forces arterial end = 11 mmHg, venuous end = 9 mmHg, 3L fluid net loss (about 55% of blood volume, returned via lymphatic system)
lymphatic system capillaries -> vessels -> trunks (5) -> ducts (2) return fluid lost from capillaries to cardiovascular system
amount of blood lost per day approximately 3 L
edema accumulation of insterstitial fluid
4 causes of edema 1. reduced concentration of plasma proteins 2. increased permeability of capillaries 3. increased venous pressure 4. blockage of lymph
veins low resistance passageway and blood reservoir; highly distensible wiht little elastic recoil; closer to the surface than arteries
venous return happens because of pressure gradients (venous pressure is 17 mmHg, 4-6 mmHg in the heart; SNS activity increases flow due to vasoconstriction, skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump overcome gravity, cardiac suction
skeletal muscle pump skeletal muscles compress veins and help push blood toward the heart
respiratory pump change in thoracic cavity pressure helps blood return to the heart
venous valves prevent blood from flowing backwards due to gravity
cadiac suction when the heart relaxes, the expansion in volume creates enough suction to pull blood into the heart
baroreceptor reflex stretch sensitive neurons in the aortic arch and carotid sinus respond to arterial blood pressure and modulate the heart rate to return to normal pressure; only active at rest
blood formed elements and plasma, transport of nutrients and other materials to various parts of the body
erythrocyte red blood cell
leukocyte white blood cell
platelet fragments of blood cells; help with clotting, no nuclei but some organelles, 10 day life span
plasma non formed elements in the blood
plasma proteins 7% of plasma, undissolved, produce colloid osmotic gradient between blood and interstitial fluid, buffer changes in pH
albumin most abundant plasma protein, nonspecific transport, carries bilirubin
globulins transport specific substances, clotting factors, contain antibodies (immunoglobulins)
fibrinogen involved in formation of fibrin, an important clotting factor
hemoglobin contains 4 globins, 4 hemes; carries oxygen (primary), carbon dioxide, hydrogen and carbon monoxide
bicarbonate blood buffer
heme compound contains iron
amount of oxygen one red blood cell can transport a billion molecules
erhythropoetin (EPO) hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells, secreted by the kidneys, stimulated by low oxygen levels in the blood
erythropoeisis production of red blood cells; happens in the red bone marrow (flat bones in adults)
removal of erythrocytes spleen and liver, life span of an erythrocyte is about 120 days
anemia below normal oxygen carrying capacity
polycythemia elevated hematocrit, too many red blood cells
hematocrit percentage of formed elements (red blood cells) in the blood; 45% for males, 43% for females
blood types A, B, AB and O Rh factor gives + and -
transfusion reactions happens when an incompatible blood type is given to a person - some types contain antibodies that will attack antigens found in incompatible blood types; mismatched blood will "clump" and may result in stroke, heart attack, hemolysis, renal failure
blood antigens and antibodies A contains A antigens and B antibodies B contains B antigens and A antibodies AB contains A and B antigens, no antibodies O contains no antigens, A and B antibodies
Rh factor "antigen D" found on erythrocytes, if present, + blood. If not, - blood. Rh - people get D antibodies after first exposure, Rhogam can be used to prevent reaction during pregnancy
megakaryocyte form platelets
hemostasis maintaining stable vasculature
platelet plug initial clotting, temporary; platelets release serotonin and thromboxane A2 which help platelets bind to exposed collagen fibers; positive feedback loop interrupted by signals from surrounding endothelial cells
coagulation clotting, long term; conversion of platelet plug into stable clott
prothrombin produces thrombin
thrombin activates fibrinogen; intrinsic (from blood) and extrinsic (from surrounding connective tissue)
fibrinogen plasma protein, produces fibrin
fibrin fibers that form clots
types of receptors in capillaries alpha1 and beta2 - highly sensitive to local action, have opposite actions on the blood vessel
metaarteriole direct connection from an arteriole to a venule, no capillary bed
lymph trunks 2 iliac (left and right), 1 intestinal, 2 bronchomediastinal (left and right)
lymph ducts thoracic duct (3/4 drainage from lower body), right lymph duct (1/4 drainage from upper body)
causes of anemia 1. decreased erythropoiesis 2. loss of erythrocytes 3. decreased hemoglobin
pernicious anemia lack of vitamin B12, genetic disorder
aplastic anemia reduction in erythropoeisis due to toxin or chemical
renal anemia side effect of kidney problem, effects EPO production
hemorrhagic anemia loss of erythrocytes due to severe bleeding
hemolytic anemia loss of red blood cells due to rupture (often caused by sickle cell anemia or parasite infection)
nutritional anemia not enough iron in the blood
3 steps of hemostasis 1. vascular spasm 2. temporary platelet plug 3. coagulation
immune system functions protection from pathogens, removal of dead or damaged cells, recognition and removal of abnormal cells
apoptosis internal cell death pathway, cell self-destruction
mutations result in apoptosis or increased cell division, possible loss of attachment to proper environment
3 major immune system pathologies 1. incorrect response (autoimmune disease) 2. overactive response (allergies) 3. lack of response (immunodeficiency due to disease or drugs)
immune response 1. detection/identification 2. communication - recruitment, coordination 3. destruction
innate immunity inborn, non-specific, inflammatory response
acquired immunity gained after exposure to pathogens, through breastmilk, vaccines
phagocyte cells that eat other cells; includes neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes
opsonization "make tasty" - plasma proteins coat pathogens and make them desirable to phagocytic cells
inflammatory response heat, swelling, redness, pain; attracts immune cells, creates physical barrier, promotes tissue repair post infection
humor blood, fluid
lymphocytes involved in humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity
cell-mediated immunity defense against own cells that are infected or mutated
humoral immunity involved with antibodies that target specific antigens
B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, humoral immunity
T-lymphocytes involved with cell-mediated immunity
MAST cells related to basophils, release paracrines that activate inflammatory response
antibody functions opsonization, antigen clumping, toxin inactivation, enhance inflammation, activate immune cells
5 general classes of antibodies IgG - secondary exposure, memory cells IgM - primary exposure IgE - inflammatory response IgA - external secretions IgD - attached to B-cells
3 major types of T-cells helper T cells (coordinate immune response) cytotoxic T cells (directly target infected cells) suppressor T cells (turn off immune response)
antigen presentation cell (APC) macrophage that is showing an antigen that it just destroyed, communicate with helper T cells to initiate immune response
major histacompatibility complex (MHC) receptors that are able to associate with lysosomes that break things down, recycle; certain cells that show what they just "ate" so that other cells can recognize it
immune response to bacteria activation of the complement system (inflammation), phagocytic activity, acquired immune responses, repair
immune response to viruses opsonization by antibodies, macrophages engage as antigen-presenting-cells, helper T cells are activated, cytotoxic T cells are activated
allergies immediate hypersensitivity reactions; first exposure - APC -> helper T cell -> B-cell -> antibody production; subsequent exposure - allergen binds to IgE, immediate release of histamine, cytokines, etc.
respiratory system functions .
respiratory pump .
4 processes of external respiration .
why lungs stick to the ribs /
intra-alveolar pressure .
intrapleural pressure .
intrapleural fluid adhesion .
transmural pressure .
Boyle's Law .
partial pressures of common gases .
tidal volume .
inspiratory reserve volume .
expiratory reserve volume .
vital capacity .
residual volume .
total lung capacity .
air pressure at sea level 760 mmHg
muscles used during inspiration .
muscles used during expiration .
compliance .
elasticity .
airway resistance .
bronchodilation .
bronchoconstriction .
anatomic dead space .
gas pressure and alveoli .
hyperventilation .
hypoventilation .
vasodilation .
vasoconstriction .
things that affect gas diffusion .
partial pressure .
partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the alveoli .
partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the cells .
Created by: pinklrt98



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