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Bio STACK 211

QuestionAnswer
Anatomy Study of Structure of an organism
Physiology Study of the function an organism perfoms
Animal Form is a product of Natural Selection
Fusiform is an example of Convergence
Fusiform Tappered on both ends
All Cells of all organisms exist in An Aqueous Enviornment
Small Sizes and Small Body Plans means they have Small Systems
Simple Systems means Diffusion and ATP (active transport)
Transport Epithelia has direct contact to what? the Enviornment
The spaces between the cells are filled with fluid called Interstitial fluid (latin for stand between)
Simple Body Plans have both the outer and inner layers of cells constantly bathed in water.
Another common design that maximizes exposure to the surounding medium is Flat body shape
As cell number ____, the ratio of the outer surface area of the animal to its total vol steadily _____ increase, decreases
Internal body fluids link exchange surfaces to body cells
Example of Circulatory Fluid Blood
Exchange between the IF and the CF enables body cells to obtain nutrients and get rid of waste
An external Skeleton can protect against predators
Sensory Organs can provide detailed info on the animal's surroundings
Internal digestive organs can break down food gradually, controlling the release of stored energy.
Specialized filtration systems adjust the composition of the internal fluid that bathes the animals body cells
Tissues groups of cells of similar apperance and common function
Organs tissues organized into functional units (weave in latin) May be held together in a loose fabric of fibers and or extracellular matrix
Organ system Groups of organs that work together
Larger Metazoans Transport epithelia do not directly contact the enviorn. and require organ systems to maintain homeostasis
Unifying theme Structure of a tissue or organ fits its function
Four Main Categories of Tissue Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscular
Epithelial Tissue Sheets of tightly packed cells.Covers inner and outer body surfaces. (riveted with Tight Junctions) (lines organs and cavities within body)
Function of Epithelial Protection (mechanical injury, microbes, fluid loss, stretch (like bladder), transport material, in and out body)
Epithelial (Outer Surface) Apical, Mucosal, luminal (intestines), exposed to enviornment or body fluids (urine), cilia may be present often secretory, may be absorptive
Epithelial (Inner Surface) Basal, serousal, bounded by basement membrane (syn.,basal lamina), dense matrix of extracellular glycoproteins (laminin), proteins with covalently bonded carbs.
Cells of Epithelial Epithelium
Basement Membranes organization of sequential events in cell metabolism, filtration of materials (kidneys, nephridia), Barrier (protection), and Cell migration routes during development
2 Criteria for classifying Epithelial Shape of Cell and # of cell layers
Shape of Cell Squamous, Cuboidal(kidney), Columnar (sm. intestine)
# of Cells Simple (1 layer/Squamouos) Stratified (2 or more layerss/ columnar..sm. intestine), pseudostratified ( 1 layer appears as more/ ciliated resp sys.), transitional (mult. layers and cell shapes)
The Apical Surface faces the lumen (cavity) or outside of the organ. Exposed to fluid and air. Covered with special progections. (sm. intes./microvilli)
Microvilli in Sm. intestine Increase surf area for absorbing nutrients.
The Basal Surface Opposite of Apical Surface attached to a basal lamina
Basal Lamina A dense mat of extracellular matrixx, which separates the epithelium from the underlying tisue
Simple Squamous Ep Thin and Leaky, functions in the exchange of material by diffusion. (This type of ep lines blood vessels and air sacs of the lungs, where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical)
Stratified Sq Ep Regenerates rapid cell division near the basal lamina. (skin, linings of esophagus, anus, and vagina)
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Forms a mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages of many vertebrates. (the cilia moves mucus along)
Simple Columnar Ep Lines the intestines. This ep secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients
Cuboidal Ep Dice shaped cells specialized for secretion, kidney tubules and many glands, including the thyroid gland and salivary glands
Six Major Types of Connective Tissue Loose, Cartilage, Fibrous, Adipose, Blood, and Bone
Three Types of Connective Tissue Fibers (made of protein) Collagenous, Elastic and Reticular
Collagebous Fibers provide strength combined with flexibility. Made of Colagen and most abundant protein. Nonelastic and do not tear easily
Elastic Fibers Easily stretched but are resilient, snaps back to their original length when tension is released. Long threads, elastic fibers are made of protein elastin.
Reticular Fibers Very Thin and Branched. Composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers. (joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues) abundant in basement membranes, glands, and many organs
Connective Tissues that hold many tissues and organs together and in place Fibroblasts and Macrophages
Fibroblasts secrete the protein ingridents of the extracellular fibers
Macrophages Amoeboid cells of the immune system
Muscle Tissues Body Movement. Contain proteins actin and myosin (enables muscles to contract)Most abundant tissue in most animals
Skeletal MT Attached to bones BY tendons. Voluntary Movements. Long Cells called Muscle Fibers. Has an Arrangement of Contractile Units (Sacromeres) along the lenght of fibers giving it Striations.
Cardia MT Forms contractile wall of heart. Striated. Carries out involuntary tasks (contraction of the heart)Cardiac muscle fibers branch and interconnect via intercalated disk
Intercalated Disks relay signals from cell to cell and help sychronize the heartbeat
Smooth MT No striations. walls of DT, Bladder, Arteries and other internal organs. Spindle-Shaped (controlled by diff kinds of nerves than those controlling skeletal muscles)Involuntary Body Activities.
Nervous Tissue Sense Stimuli and Transmit Signals in the Form of Nerve Impulses
Neurons Nerve Cells
Neuron extensions Axons that transmit nerve impulses away from the nerve cell
Glial Cells (Glia) Help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
Connective Tissue (Notes) Sparse population of cells scattered thru an extracellular matrix
Function of CT (Notes) Bind, Supports, and protects other tissues (varies according to cell types, matrix, fibers and properties of each.
3 Sub Cats CT Proper, CT w SPECIAL Properties, Supp CT
Connective Tissue Proper (Notes) Loose Connective Dense (or Fibrous) Connective
Connective Tissue w/ Special Properties (Notes) Blood Adipose Tissue
Supportive Connective Tissue (Notes) Cartilage Bone
C.T.P. (Notes) Most widespread connective tissue among vertebrates Functions: Binds epithelia to underlying tissues. Packing material to hold organs in place.
Connective Tissue Func (Notes) binds epithelia to underlying tissues, pack materials to hold organs in place.
Dense or Fibrous CT rich in collagenous fibers in parallel bundles (great tensile str., tendons muscle attached to bones)
Ligaments Join bones to Joint
Serosa and Submucosa of Alimentary Canal Walls
Blood Mats atena of CT
Matrix Plasma (water, salts, soluble, proteins, etc)
Erythocytes RBC
Leucocytes (WBC)
Cell Frgaments found in Blood Platelets
Adipose Tissue Intracellular Matrix (Fat)
Adipose is divided into lobes by sm blood vessels
Adipocytes Padding, insulation, energy storage
Endocrine Function leptin, resistin etc
Cartilage (Supp CT) Rubbery Matrix of Chondroitin Silfate and collagenous fibers secreted by chondrocytes found in laconae
Cartilage (function-notes) Provides strength and flexibility. Found in joints ribcage, ear, nose, bronchial tubes, inverterbral discs
Stomach Acid Chyme Stomach lining replaced --3 day cycle Helicobacter pyloris Pyloric sphincter squirts contents over 2-6 hr pds
Acid Chyme Churned mixture of stomach contents (mixed every 20 seconds)
Helicobacter Pyloris Gastic Ulcers
Small Intestine Major site of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and absorption 6 meters in length
Three Part of the Small intestine Duodenum Jejunum Ileum
Duodenum Short (25 cm), C shaped anterior with openings for pancreatic and bile ducts
Jejunum central (2/5) this of the small intestine Great deal of absoprtion takes place here
Ileum
Created by: 562373180