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Parasite Exam 1

General - Protozoa

Parasitic diseases are common to what climate? Warm
What can affect parasite distribution? Social and economic conditions. Greater numbers in developing countries
The degree of injury from a parasite depends on what factors? Number, Size, Activity, and location in host
Diagnosis of a parasite requires what? lab detection and identification
Unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms Protozoa
What parasites are in the Protozoa group? Amebas, Flagellates, Ciliates, Hemoglagellates, and Sporozoa
Pseudopodia Amebas
Flagella Flagellates
Cilia Ciliates
Flagella ; Blood & Tissue protozoa Hemoflagellates
Protozoa are what type of parasite? Endoparasite
Metazoa; Worm-like invertebrates Helminths
Intestinal roundworms Nematodes
Tissue roundworms Filariae
Tapeworm (segmented flat worm) Cestoda
Fluke (non segmented flat worm) Trematoda
Hard exoskeleton, Jointed appendages Arthropods
Flies, Mosquitoes, Bugs, Lice are what? Insects
Ticks and Mice are what category? Arachnids
Arthropods are what kind of parasite? Ectoparasite
Active, vegetative form of Protozoa Trophozoite
Inactive, resistant, infectious form Cyst
Mature stage of Helminths Adult
Egg stage of Helminths Ovum (Ova)
Immature stage of Helminths Larvae
Pinworm Enterobious vermicularis
What sample is preferred in parasite testing? Stool
How many specimens are sufficient for detection of Helminth ova? 1 or 2
How many specimens are sufficient for detection of Protozoa? 3 specimen collected every other day
What preservatives are used on stool samples? Formalin Polyvinyl alcohol
How soon should a stool sample be tested in the lab? As soon as possible
Formalin is made of what? 10% V/V aqueous formaldehyde
Formalin ratio for feces 1:3
Polyvinyl alcohol ratio for feces 1:3
Formalin is used for what identification? Wet mounts only!
Polyvinyl alcohol is used for what identification? Permanent smears
SAF stands for sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin
SAF is used for Permanent smears and concentrated methods
What color do protozoa stain with Iron hematoxylin stain? Gray-blue to black
Protozoa stain what color with Trichrome stain? blue-green to purple`
What color is the background with a trichrome stain? green
what objective is necessary for smears? Oil Objective (100x)
Flotation uses what solution? zinc sulfate
what is the specific gravity of the zinc sulfate solution used in flotation? 1.180
Flotation is best for what parasites? Protozoan cysts, Hymenolepsis nana ova, and Hookworm ova
Formalin ethyl acetate centrifugation is another term for what procedure? Sedimentation
Which method is better: sedimentation or flotation? Sedimentation
What Iodine solutions are best? Dobell and O'Connor or D'Antoni's
Which iodine solutions are okay to use, but not best? Lugols
What solutions should you never use to stain parasites? Gram's or Burkes
Iodine Wet Mount procedure cover mount and seal with vespar scan on 10x. use 40x to identify. DO NOT USE OIL!
Trichrome Stain Smear Procedure use 40x to scan. use 100x to identify. Must use fine focus to identify characteristics
What scanning style should be used? Overlapping fields
Device to measure things on a microscope ocular micrometer
mm scale used to calibrate micrometer scale micrometer
lumen dwelling protozoan cysts are found in normal stool
lumen dwelling protozoan trophozoites are found in diarrhea
which entamoeba species is pathogenic? Entamoeba histolytica
Which entamoeba species is non-pathogenic? entamoeba dispar
Round, peripheral chromatin, nucleolus in center (dot) Entamoeba Histolytica
Lumen dwelling protozoan cause Amebiasis
Lumen dwelling protozoan cysts are found in contaminated food and water
Amoebas can cause amebic dysentery
how is entamoeba histolytica transmitted? person-to-person
mature cysts of entamoeba histolytica have how many nuclei 4+
what is the smaller species in the entamoeba category? Entamoeba hartmanii
Lumpy chromatin, eccentric nucleus, cysts have up to 8 nuclei. blunt, jagged end to chromatoidal bodies entamoeba coli
nana means what?http://www.studystack.com/EditData2.jsp?studyStackId=600576# small
no perichromatin, large karyosome endolimax nana
commensal parasite iodamoeba butschlii
40-50% have 2 nuclei. No cyst. Karyosome in 3-4 pieces dientamoeba fragilis
what is the habitat for free-living amoebas? natural warm waters (ponds, lakes) and soil
free living amoebas are distributed where? worldwide
acute primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) Naegleria fowleri
severe headache, vomiting, fever, rapid progression to coma and death (<10days) naegleria fowleri
subacute or chronic granulomatous encephalitis Acanthamoeba species
skin infections, keratitis, corneal ulcers are from Acanthamoeba species
Free living amebic infections are diagnosed by CSF, biopsy, corneal scrapings
Free living amebic infections are contracted mostly by: swimming. parasite is in water that gets into nose. travels to CNS. can cause eye infections if water is in eyes.
What is the only pathogenic ciliate? Balantidium coli
What parasite is associated with monkeys and swine? Balantidium coli
Macronucleus, vacuoles, and cytosome (mouth) Balantidium coli
What is the common disease caused by Balantidium coli? Balantidiasis
What is the most common worldwide Protozoan infection? Giardiasis
Also known as "Beaver Fever" and "Hitchhikers Diarrhea" Giardia
This protozoan affects the small intestine, above the duodenum Giardia
Fatty/frothy stool, malabsorption, bloating, flatulance, steatorrhea Giardiasis
Trophs and cysts of Giardia are found in stool and/or duodenal contents
Flagellate. Binucleate. Adhesion cup. Very flat. Looks like a face. Giardia
The enterotest aka "string test" is used for what species? Giardia
How is Trichomonas vaginalis transmitted? Sexually
How many new cases of T. Vaginalis are there each year in the US? 5 million
Asymptomatic infections are more common in men than women in this disease: Trichomoniasis
What type of identification method is best for T. Vaginalis Wet mounts. They will have a jerky movement
Trophs of T. Vaginalis will appear in what samples? Smears and urine
Pear shaped, large nucleus, Flagellate, unjulate membrane Trichomonas Vaginalis
Where are Cryptosporidium species found? Aquatic environments that are resistant to chlorination
How is Cryptosporidiosis diagnosed? Oocysts in stool
What can be used to identify the Cryptosporidium species? Immunofluorescence. Highly sensitive
Cryptosporidium species can be stained using what? Acid Fast stain
What should be used to diagnosis blood and tissue protozoa? Peripheral blood smear or biopsy tissue
How is Toxoplasmosis transmitted? Through cat feces and raw meat
How is Toxoplasmosis diagnosed? Serological testing
What are the symptoms of Toxoplamosis? mild to symptomatic ; flu-like symptoms
What is the primary host of Toxoplasma gondii? Domestic cats
Oocysts from domestic cat feces can affect what body systems? Muscular, Eye, and CNS
When do congenital infections of Toxoplasmosis occur? During pregnancy
What is the most common form of Malaria? Plasmodium Vivax
Plasmodium Falciparum is also know as Black Water Fever
How is Malaria transmitted? By the Anopheles species of mosquitoes
How is Malaria diagnosed? Trophs, Schizonts, and Gametocytes found in peripheral blood
Malaria is endemic in how many countries? 90 Countries
Malaria infects how many people worldwide? 500 Million
How many people die annually from Malaria? 2.7 Million
What age group dies most often from Malaria? Children
What does Malaria cause? Red Blood Cell destruction
What is the infective form of plasmodium? sporozoites
What is the method of infection for Malaria? Mosquito bites another human, injecting sporozoites.
What is the infectious form of plasmodium for RBCs? Merozoites and cryptozoites
This infection has a cyclic condition, with symptoms occuring every 36, 48, 72 hrs. Malaria
What type of blood smear should be used to diagnose Malaria? Thick blood smear
How do you make a thick peripheral blood smear? Place three drops on slide. Use corner edge of another slide to mix in circular pattern
Plasmodium vivax attacks what portion of the body? Reticulocytes
What form of Plasmodium has multiple trophs in RBCs P. Falciparum
What shape is P. Falciparum? Crescent shaped
Which Plasmodium species has stipling? P. Vivax
Which Plasmodium species has a banded form? P. Malariae
Which Plasmodium species has some drug resistance? Plasmodium Falciparum
Test that is antigen specific for three forms of malaria? Binax NOW
Babesia microti & Babesia divergens cause what common name disease? Babesiosis
Babesiosis is what kind of disease? Zoonotic
What is Babesiosis transmitted by? Ixoides ticks
How is Babesiosis diagnosed? Trophs in the peripheral blood
Vaculoe, Tetrad, Maltese cross, resembles P. Falciparum Babesia microti
What parasite has no schizont form? Babesia sp.
American trypanosomiasis is also known as what? Chagas' Disease
What kind of disease is American trypanosomiasis? Vector borne
What is American trypanosomiasis transmitted by? "Kissing bug" (bug usually infects area around nose and lips. nocturnal)
What is the vector for American trypanosomiasis? Reduvvid bug
What is the typical shape of American trypanosomiasis in the peripheral blood? C or S shaped
What are the symptoms of American trypanosomiasis? Systemic disease. Affects the heart, muscles, and eyes.
How is American trypanosomiasis transmitted from the "kissing bug"? The bug defecates on the host, possibly causing an immune reaction, so the host scratches the site to cause an abrasion. The feces then infect the abrasion.
How is American trypanosomiasis diagnosed? Peripheral blood or biopsy tissue
What is found in the peripheral blood of a patient with American trypanosomiasis? Trypomastigotes
What is found in a tissue biopsy of a patient with American trypanosomiasis? Amastigotes
Leishmania species causes what disease? Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
What is the vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Phlebotomine sandflies
How often is Cutaneous Leishmaniasis found in the US? Very rare
Who does Cutaneous Leishmaniasis usually affect? Military personnel
Where is Cutaneous Leishmaniasis endemic? South America and Middle East
What are the Phlebotomine sandflies that cause Cutaneous Leishmaniasis also known as? Biting flies
Created by: ashleywest16