Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pathologicalconditon

QuestionAnswer
Asthma chronic abnormal autonomic respons of the bronchial muscles that produce:intermittent acut bronchospasms, partial airway obstuction, chronic bronchial inflammation, edema-airway obstruction from the effects; inflammation, bronchospasm,
Asthma involves narrowing of small air passages of lower resp system, affects b/w 5-10% cuased by various genetic and immune system factors, asthma can lead to a chornic reduction of air flow caused by:epithelial cell damage, fibrous changes in the bronchiols
Signs and Symptoms of Asthma can last min hrs or days Dyspnea, chest tightness, fatigue, anxiety, coughing, wheezing, prolonged expiration, panting speech, cyanosis, practice may need to be altered peakflow of >80% good to go
asthma triggers, eval and diagnostic testing Triggers:allergens, smoke, infection, cold or dry air, emotional state, ex-Eval:increassed Hr, resp rate, use of accessory muscles, ascultation(wheezing-experiation, rhonchi-inspiration, decreased breath sounds), diagnostic testing:peakflow meter
asthma treatment Goal:limit bronchial inflammation, control symps, prevent exacerbation, maintain normal pulmonary function avoid triggers, ath instructed to sit, take deep breaths exhale through pursed lips keep them calm,
Administastration of bronchodilator prescribed-metered dosed inhalers(mdi), 2 doeses administerd 5 min apart, good technique and timing is important recovery should occur gradually
Asthma management antiinflammatory meds and bronchiodilator meds
Anti-inflammatory corticosteriords, masst cell stabilizers, antileukotriends, controle underlying chornic inflammation, provide long term control, taken on a daily basis, noncomplicance leads to:more frequent attacks, more scarring within lungs
Bronchodilators B2 agonists-provide quick relief, taken on an as needed basis, b2 goes to lunchs
Medication Pathway 2 neurotransmitter recept involved in ANS resp control-adrenergic agonist, anticholinergic drugs, 2 classes of asthma drugs adrenegic agonist, anticholinergic drugs
Adrenergic Agonist activate the receptor to promote muscle relaxation of smooth muscle-bronchodilation-beta-adrenergic receptors)aka beta 2 receptors
anticholinergic Drugsbind with receptors w/ intent of blocking receptor activation that causes smooth muscle constriction-cronchoconstriction-anticholinergic drugs
NSAID asthma medication arachidonic acid-lipogenase pathway-inflammation w/ asthma, leukotrienes:cause smooth muscle contraction in bronchial tissue, antileukotriene meds-singular, accolate
NATA reccomendations for managing asthma in ath during PPE ath screened for asthma, AT aware of S/S suggesting ast:tight chest, cough, SOB, wheeze, limit physical activity due2 difficulty breathing, pulmonary testing indicated 4 ath w/ history of asth/athwho diagnosis of ast cant b excluded by med hist
NATA reccomendations cont AT familar w/pharmacological interv 4 tx,plan incorporated into overal EAP sports med service, ath w/asth have rescue inhaler @alltimes,AT have access to nebulizer 4 emergencies, alt px sites considered when possible 2 avoid allergens that trigger attack
NATA reccomendatiosn 3 pt w/asthma regular f/u visits w/ dr 2 monitor and mod tx regimen-proper w/u provide refractory period lasting up 2 2 hrs, ath educatedon asthma: s/s, triggers, spirometry, pharm and non parm supporitve tx, MDI& nebs, need not prevent participation
NATA recommendations 4 AT aware of other med cond that may mimic s/s of asthma ievocal cord dysfunc & UR diseases, pt w/ astha should be encouraged to exercise, At able to differentiate b/w restricted, banned and permitted asthma meds relative to participation in org comp sport
MDI prepare(shake, warm up), hold inhaler upright, tip head slightly, exhale slowly, place inhaler in mouth, seallips, prss down n inhaler-release meds @same time take slow deep breath, hold breath 10sec b4 exhaling, 2 puff wait 1-5min
Peak flow meter measure lung volume w/ventilation-analog scale indicates volume of PEF, indic of airway function, monitors effectiveness of meds, manage asth-baseline recorded over several days, take PEF immediately be4 and after ex,<80%asthma attack, <50 med emergency
Peak Expiratory Flow Pef- highest volume of air they can exhale
Peak flow meter instruction stand upright, slide indicator to base, exhale completely, take a deep breath, place mouth piece in mouth, seal lips, blow as hard &fast as you can 1x, repeat w/rest of 1min, predict readings, clean w/ warm water and soap
Exercise induced Bronchospasm most common affecting-15%of pop, 90% ppl w/ asthma, 40%ppl w. allergies, occurs-5-15 min after onset of exercise, gets progressively worse at ex continues, resolves-30-60min after stoping ex-does not produce chronic inflammation in bronchioles like asthma
Exercise induced bronchospasm defiend and triggered by defined by:post exercise FEV more than 15% below pre-exercise value, Triggered by:cool,dryair, allergies, breathing through mouth, infection, pollution
Exercise induced bronchospasm, s/s, diagnosis s/s:SOB, chest tightness, dry cough after exercise, diagnosis:easure PEF before and after exercise, post vlue is 15%less=EIA
Exercise induced bronchospasm tx MDI before activity or @onset of symp, removed from activity, sit them down, calm reassure ath, monitor, refracory period
Refractory period management-warm up 50-90% MHR, bring system close to threshold, stop activity, take MDI, rest 15-70 min, resume competition, last up to 3 hrs(inconsitent results)
exercise induced anaphylaxis abnormal immune repsonse2 vigorus ex, hx breath probs w/ chronic NSAId use, reaction causes:weidespread realase of histamin, acute bronchospasm, s/s:fluch sensation to head and neck, rapidly followd by cough, stridor, shock, multple skin lesions-hives
bronchitis chronic-COPD obstuction caused by mechanical insufficency, chonic inflammation decreases the functional diameter of the bonchi and impairs airflow, increased co2 decreased o2 , ultimately decreases gas exchange
emphysema chronic bronchitis, complication of cpd and msoking, chronic inflammatory rxn to chemcials in smoke that destory the albeolar walls, capillaries, lung elasticity, decreases avaliable lung area, irreversible poor prognosis
Acute viral bronchitis most common, self limiting, s.s rductive cough(clear, yellow) SOB, chest tightness, fever
Acute bacterial bronchitis rarely in healthy adults, more common in CPD patients s.s fever chills, night swears in addition to acute s.s
Acute bronchitis eval diagnosis, treatment eval:auscultation(rhonchi and crackles), Diagnosis:clinical, chest xray, cbc, tretment, mucolytics, couggh suppresants, NSAIDS, rest fluids antipyretics, nutrition
Pneumonia condition that results in inflam of lung parenchyma-viral,bacteria,fungal,s/s:SOB chest p!, productive cough(dark, discolored sputum), lowlobes:ab/diaphragmic p!, Eval:resp midly elevated labored breathing, percussion dull, auscultation: rales and weeze
Pneumonia, diagnosis, tx, rtp diagnosis-refer!, tx-antibiotics(zpack, biaxin), support w/ hydration, mucolytics, cough suppressant(robotussin), ATC refer back to Md if no improvment after 2-3 days of tx, RTP afevrile, 7-10 b/c of respiratory comprise
Upper Respiratory infection def, and s/s upper respiratory tract-# of self limiting viral infections affecting URT nasopharynx, trachea, bronchii-s/s-rhinitis, rhinorrhea, sore throat, nonproductive cough, sneezing, HA, malaise, chills fever, laryngitis, complications:ear infection, sinusitis
Upper respiratory tract eval and tx eval:clinic, dark prulent nasaldischarge, s/s last 7-10dys refer,Tx:1. support immunesystem w/ rest, fluid nutrition2.limit contact w/infected person-verycontagious, active8dys after infec, conta 1st 72hrs,3OTC meds used 2 treat symp and reduce discomfort
Cough and cold meds analgesics, antihisamines, antitussives, decongestants, multisymptom releive products
analgesics tylenol, ibu, headach and fever
antihistamines runnny nose and sneezing, claritin, allegra, benadryl(1st generation)
antitussive cough suppressant, cough drops, codine and hydrocodone(rx)
decongestants reduce nasal congestion, pseudoephedrine, nasal sprays wiht caution
multisymptom releiver products tylenol cold and sinus, nyquil
URI return to play "neck rule"-above-runnynose, sore throat, no fever, ok to retun to play 10 min, below-cough, body aches, fever, no, not cleared to play, can RTP after symtom free for 24 hr
influenza fall, WINTER, spring-2 recognized strainsA,B,C-strain most common mutates slightly each yr-contagious(incubation 2days)-inhailed airbone droplets, direct contact
influenza vaccination only partially effective-injection of deavtivated virus antigen, stimulate antibody formation, high risk individuals-seniors, students, compromised immune system
Influenza s/s, eval, tx, s/s:fever,HA,nausea,fatigue,body aches,URI eval:clinic,nasopharynx swab,cbc chest xray, tx:bedrest,analgesic,fluids,supportive drugs, AWAY from othershigh risk:antiviral-if caught in 1st 48hr, reduce symp1day,strain A/B
Influenza RTP afebrile, no respiratory comprised, fueled
Tuberculosis caused by bacterial organism-cyobacterium tuberculosis, very contagious bacterial infec affecting the lungs, most ppl will recover w.o further evidence of disease, comprised immune system-symptomatic
Tuberculosis(s/s, eval, tx, RTP) s/s:fatigue,fever,weightloss,cough,hemoptysis,SOB,chestp!-Eval:+ skintest, referfever >100, chills night sweats,ausculation: crackles,wheezing-Tx:latent3-6mth antibiotics,active:3-4antibiotics-RTPLasymptomatic not contagious-report to local health dept
Pneumothorax negative pressure(holds lungs) in pleural space is lost, air trapped b/w parietal and visceral pleura, mor common in tall thing men20-40yrs, rupture of bleb or bulls, truamatic, no truama spontaneous
Tension Pneumothorax pleural space continues to collect air, increase in throacic pressure, trachea, mediastium may deviate to opposite side, pressure occludes major vessels, compression heart=death
Hemothorax blood collects in pleural space, usually traumatic
pneumothorax s/s, eval s.s:chest p!, SOB, dyspnea, respiration distress, little chest wall motion of affected side, shift in trachea-Eval:auscultation:decreased, absent breath sounds, percussion:hollow(puffed out chest), REFER!!!!
Pneumothroax tx, RTP Tx:splint thorax-hug pillow, calm pt-control coughin &gasping 4air,vitals,emergency transport-remove air,aspriate air w/vacum, chest tube-days, RTPpheuno3-5dy, spontaneous-50%chance happen again, tension/hemo-recovery much longer and dependent on symp
Created by: jwebst1