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parts of respiratory system nasal cavity, nasopharyncx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli-terminal unit, repsiration, gas exchanges
upper respiratory nasal passage, paranasal sinus, pharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx-warms, addds moisture and cleans air
lowr respiatory trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
inspiration- Actibe muscles contract-primary muscles-diaphragm, intercostals, accessory muscles-abdominals, SCM, scalenes, seratus, pec major, upper trap, air tracels from high pressure to lower pressure
expiration passively, elastic recoil of ribcage, lungs/alveolar pressure exceeds atmosphere pressure-air travels from high pressure(alveolar) to lower pressure(atmosphere)
respiration: o2 co2 exchange-o2 partial pressure-high atmosphere/alveoli) to lower (capillaries), co2 partial pressure-high(capillaries) to lower (atmosphere/alveoli)
boyles Law relationship b/w colume and pressure is constant, increase volume decrease pressure
regulation of breathing medulla oblongata, baroreceptors, stretch receptors, neural control
Medulla Oblongata sensitivie to CO2 and pH, decrease pH and increase CO2, resutl from normal cellular metabolism, increase ventilation to remove by-products
Baroreceptors sensitvie to pressure, detect changes in BP, increase ventilation to maintaint blood O2 concentration
Stretch Receptors located in intercostal muscles, cuase inspirtation to stop, expiration to begin
neural control phernic nerve(c3, c4,c5)-innervates diaphram and intercoastal muscles
Exercise and Breathing lungs more blood, muscles use more o2, partial o2 \/ in pulmonary vessel-more O2 inhaled air diffuse inalveolar capillaries &made avaliable to the body, acid &Co2 produced by vigorous ex, /\ventilation, +of accessory muscles, need demand for o2 ventilatin
Tachypnea rapid breathing, 24+ breaths
Hyperpnea tachypnea w/ large deep breaths
bradypnea slower breathing<12 breaths
hypopnea shallow breathing
dyspnea SOB, difficulty breathing
Hyperventilation decrease partial pressure CO2, increased pH
orthopnea/paroxymal nocturnal dyspnea SOB while supine
Dry, nonproductive cough allergies
producing clear sputum upper respirtory
purulent(thick) sputum w/ pus, opaque color lower respiratory
hemoptysis sputum w/ blood call 911!!
observation/inspection obcious deformities, cyanosis, asymetry of meovement, pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, scoliosis, displaced rib fracture
prectus excavatum hallow chest
pectus carinatum pigeon breasted
palpation posterior chest wall(t9, t10)-crepitus "99" test for tactile fremits and looks for edema rib compression test(ant/post, lateral)
99 test ulnar surface of hand, athlete speaks 99, compare bilateral-intesity not importent symmetry is, decrease fremitus-move distal, over bone(scapula), obstruction-pleural effusion, pneumothorax, emphysema
tactile fremitius papable vibration from larynx through bronchi/longs into chest
percusion identify tissues as fluidfilled, airfilled, solid-technique-3 finger volar surface placed on area 2 b performed, 3 finger opp hand applies percussion, quick tapmotion-tip not pad, increase volume-press more firmly, follow #- take 2x @site, alt bilaterally
Auscultation same location pattern as percussion, use diaphragm of stethoscope, ath takes deep breaths w/ mouth open, evaluate lungs
Evaluating lungs -for 1 full inspiration and expiration, anterior:upper lobes, middle lobe and side Posterior:lower lobes Lateral:middle lobe*side
Breath sounds bronchial, bronchoesibular, vesicular advententious
Bronchial air through large airway, pitch loud, high pitched, when:expiratioin, where:over trachea, anterior chest, midline
Bronchovesicular air through medium airways, pitch:medium, moderate intensity, When:inspration and experation, where:anterior, posterior-venter of thorax
Vesicular air through smaller airways, Pich:soft, low pitch, When:inspiration, where:periphery of lung over alveoli
advententious breath souns breath sounds that are not normal or bad, rales, weezes, strido, pleural rub
Rales crackes-pops or cracks during inspiration, obstruction caused by fluid in smaller airways, example hair rubbed between fingers, or velcro
Wheezes continuous rumbling sounds during expiration, pitch-high(asthma) small airways, lower(bronchitis) larger airways-rhonchi, obstruction caused by spasm or mucus
Stridor CALL 911, harsh raspy sound during inspiration, obstruction suddent, nearly complete, croup-stridor with cough
pleural rub "friction rub"-low pitch creaking, clicking at end of inspiration, no obstruction-friction between visceral and partietal pleura, example to ballowns rubbing together bending leather
Created by: jwebst1
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