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Ch. 13 Cardiac Funct

Physiology 2420

QuestionAnswer
The upper chambers of the heart are called ____________. atria
The lower chambers of the heart are called _____________. ventricles
The _____________ separates the atria and ventricles on either side of the heart and keeps the blood from mixing. septum
The upper pole of the heart is called the ___________. base
The lower pole of the heart is called the __________. apex
Blood leaving the heart is transported through _______________ . arteries
Arteries branch into smaller vessels called ______________. arterioles
Arterioles take blood to the ________________. capillaries
From the capillaries blood then travels to the _________. venules
Blood travels from the venules to the ____________. veins
The most numerous cells in the blood are called ___________. erythrocytes
The less common cells in the blood are called ____________. leukocytes
What are platelets? cell fragments that play a role in blood clotting
What is plasma and what does it contain? made up of water; contains dissolved proteins
The _______ side of the heart supplies blood to the pulmonary circuit. right
The _________ side of the heart supplies blood to the systematic circuit. left
Where does the exchange of nutrients take place in the pulmonary and systematic circuits? capillary beds
Oxygentated blood is what color? red
What color is deoxygentated blood? dark red
Blood flows from the left ventricle through the _____________ into the ___________ circuit. aorta; systematic
Blood becomes deoxygentated in systematic tissues and travels back to the heart through the _____________. vena cavae
Once in the heart, blood must pass through the __________ valve into the right ventricle. tricuspid
The right ventricle pumps blood into the ____________ arteries. pulmonary
The blood becomes oxygenated in the _________. lungs
Once the blood has become oxygenated in the lungs, it then travels through the _________ veins. pulmonary
Once in the left atrium, blood passes through the _____________ valve into the left ventricle. bicuspid or mitral
The semilunar valves are called the ___________ and ______________. aortic and pulmonary
An action potential in the heart is initiated in the ____ node under normal conditions. SA
An action potential in the heart is initiated in the SA node under normal conditions, but may be initiated in either the ____ or ___________ under certain conditions. AV; Purkinge Fibers
Once the SA node initiates the cardiac action potential, impulses travel through the ___________ and ____________ pathways. internodal and interatrial
Action potential travels from the SA node through the internodal or interatrial pathways to the ____ node. AV
As the impulse is conducted through the AV node, there is a momentary delay called the _______________. AV nodal delay
What is the purpose of the AV nodal delay? to give the atria time to finish contacting before ventricular contraction begins
From the AV node, the impulse travels to the ______________. Bundle of His, also called the AV bundle
From the Bundle of His the signal splits between the _____ and ______ bundle branches left and right
From the left and right bundle branches the signal spreads through the ______________ and then on to the rest of the myocardial cells. Purkinje
What three ions are the most important when examining electrical charges in cardiac muscles? Na+, Ca2+, K+
What ions make the membrane potential more positive? Na+ and Ca2+
What ion makes the membrane potential more negative? K+
The first type of channels to open in a pacemaker cell is called the __________ channel. funny
The ____________ channel closes when the membrane potential reaches -55 mV. funny
The _________ channels open which raises the permeability of the cell calcium. T-type
The T-type channel raises the permeability of the cell _________. calcium
The _________ channel will make the membrane more positive and is only open for a short time. T-type
The _____________ channel results in a large increase in the permeability of the cell to calcium and causes the large upswing in the action potential. L-tyoe
The depolarization caused by the L-type channel triggers the opening of _______ channels and the closing of ________ channels which results in repolarization and termination of the action potetial. K+ (potassium), Ca2+ (calcium)
How are the pacemaker cells and the contractile cells connected? gap junctions
The initial depolarization phase of the cardiac action potential in contractile cells is similar to neurons in that voltage gated ____ channels open and ____ flows into the cell. Na+
Activities in what two channels causes the plateau phase? inward rectifying K+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels
After initial depolarization in contractile cells, Na+ channels inactivate and ______________ channels close and ___ stops flowing out of the cell. inward rectifying K+ channels, K+
In the repolarization phase, a different type of ____ channels open and ___ moves out while _____ channels close slowing the influx of ____. K+, K+, Ca2+, Ca2+
At rest, both types of _____ channels are open allowing ____ to flow out while _____ and Ca2+ channels are closed. K+, K+, Na+, Ca2+
What is the stimulus for an action potential in cardiac muscle cells? current through gap junctions
Once the action potential arrives in cardiac muscle, it passes through the plasma membrane and what else? T-tubules
The channels that open on the SR that allow calcium into the cytosol are called what? voltage-gated
What is the other source of calcium into the cell other than voltage-gated channels? calcium channels on plasma membrane
What are three ways calcium is removed from cytosol muscle? Ca2+ ATPase in SR, Ca2+ ATPase in plasma membrane, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in plasma membrane
What is calcium-induced calcium relase? is a process whereby calcium can trigger release of further calcium from the muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum
The P wave is due to what in the heart? atrial depolarization
The QRS complex is correlated with what in the heart? ventricular depolarization, atrial repolarization
The T wave is correlated with what in the heart? ventricular repolarization
The P-Q interval is an estimate of what? time of conduction throughout the AV node
The Q-T interval is an estimate of what? time ventricles are contracting
The T-Q interval is an estimate of what? ventricular diastole
The R-R interval is an estimate of what? the time between heartbeats
What does the term diastole mean? ventricular relaxation
What does the term systole mean? ventricular contraction
What causes the lub, or first sound during a heart beat? blood rushing through the AV valves as they are about to close
What causes the dub, or second sound during a heart beat? blood rushing through the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary) as they are about to close
the biggest and longest artery (a blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart) in the body. It carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body. aorta
a large vein (a blood vessel carrying blood to the heart) that carries oxygen-poor blood the right atrium from the lower half of the body. inferior vena cava
the left upper chamber of the heart. It receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein. left atrium
the left lower chamber of the heart. It pumps the blood through the aortic valve into the aorta. left ventricle
the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It prevents the back-flow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium. mitral valve (bucuspid valve)
the blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. pulmonary artery
the flaps between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. When the ventricle contracts, the valves opens, causing blood to rush into the pulmonary artery. pulmonary valve
the blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. pulmonary vein
the right upper chamber of the heart. It pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery. right ventricle
the muscular wall that separates the left and right side of the heart. septum
a large vein that carries oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium from the upper parts of the body. superior vena cava
the flaps between the right atrium and the right ventricle. tricuspid valve
Name of blood vessel? oxygenated blood, thin walls, towards the heart pulmonary vein
Name of blood vessel? oxygenated blood, thick walls away from the heart aorta
Name of blood vessel? deoxygenated blood, thick walls, away from the heart pulmonary arteries
Name of blood vessel? deoxygenated blood, thin walls, towards the heart vena cavae
Created by: GracieLou