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Social Sciences PSS1

Social Studies

QuestionAnswer
Marie Curie French, 1st woman won Nobel prize, Controlled conditions
Steps of Scientific Method Topic, Read, Hypothesis, Develop research, Verify, Generalize
Anthropology Biology/Traits acquired socially. Uses all of human culture: Linguistics, material artifacts, economic structure, music
Economy Human institution. Attempt to understand the activities of people in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services necessary to sustain life. Work, natural resources, and of money, supply/demand.
Geography Natural science, land, bodies of h2o. Why people settle in some location rather than others, which types of land are good for agriculture, transportation
Political Science State, politics, power, ideology, international relations
Psychology Forces that shape and motivate individuals, Socialization, emotions, memory, perception, intelligence, motivation, learning, effects of heredity
Sociology Human groups in interaction, observes environment, religion, politics, the economy, deviance, criminality, change, demography, industry, technology, medicine
Stratification Society is divided into a number of layers: 1. Wealth 2. Prestige 3. Power. Might prevent some people from developing their talents, untalented receive rewards despite their limitations.
Dimensions Class, status, power (Based on the amount of desirable goods they posses)
Classical Conservative Inequality is part of the law of nature (ppl are selfish and greedy)
Classical liberal Humans are considered basically good rather than selfish. It is society that corrupts ppl. Competition. Struggle ends with dominance
Structural Funcionalist/Equilibrium theory Focus on the needs of society over individual. Individuals can be satisfied w/in the society. Reward intelligent.
Conflict Perspective/Conflict theorists Inequality is the product of the conflicts and disagreement that originate in ppl's desire for power.
Cartography Mapmaking
Regional Geography Describes and analyzes places in terms of categories such as local population, customs, politics, economy, and religion
Systematic/topical geography Climate, weather, vegetation, minerals
Geography relies on 3 things Site, situation, concept of region
Region Climate, soil type, language, economic activity.
Conformal maps Distortion of size and distance means that the scale in one part of a map is diff from that in another part. Objects in one area appear larger or smaller than they actually are in relation to object in another part of the map. DISTORT SIZE PRESERVE SHAPE
Equal-area maps Maps that preserve size but distort shape
Steppe Grasslands
Tundra Mainly below freezing
Savanna Vegetation characteristic or these large seasonally dry areas in tropical Africa and S. America.
Prairie Midlatitude, semiarid climate of these areas features hot summers, cold winters and moderate rainfall.
Socialization The process of becoming human.
Personality Made up of inherited traits and learned behavior.
Dynamic Changes
Circular distinctive Personality development occurs as a consequence of the interplay of biological inheritance, physical environment, culture, group experience, and personal experience
Symbolic interactionism Mead. Social interaction is the basis of the emergence of self and personality. Centers around the interrelationship of mine, self, and society
Role Playing Children take members of their own family and of their peer group (significant others). Later take the role of society (generalized other).
Defense Mechanisms Unconscious actions that individuals use to ward off anxiety. (repression, regression, projection, and displacement).
Variation in species is caused by Mutation, gene flow, and migration
State Source of ultimate power, monopoly on the use of force w/in its borders. (abstract)
Government Real day-to-day exercise of power. Includes system of norms, values, laws.
Purpose of Govmnt Moral control, social control, political control
Coerce Threaten with punishment which does not comply
Influence Being able to manipulate information or to have an effect on values, attitudes, and feelings.
Traditional authority Oldest type of power that ppl know.
Legal-rational authority Organized in a bureaucratic fashion b/c this pattern of social organization limits the exercise of power. Power resides in a social position and role rather than in a specific individual.
Charismatic authority The person of an exceptional leader. Magnetic, fascinating, and extraordinary by their followers.
Ideology System of beliefs/doctrines. Tend to develop around a central value-equality or racial purity. Explain why things are the way they are. Educate ppl, often distort the truth. Make ppl blindly loyal to them.
Political Ideology Deals with questions-who will be the rulers, how will they be elected
Autocratic ideologies belief that govmt should b in the hands of 1 individual-or group of individuals-w supreme power over the ppl of the society
Totalitarianism they control the individual in all aspects of life, social and religious as well as political
Fascism concept of inequality, some persons were considered superior to others: men to women. Preferred to believe that only a small minority of the pop qualified by birth, education, or social standing, r able 2 understand & do what was best 4 society
Communism Economic/political system goals r total govmt cntrl of economy & total income redistribution w aim of a classless society. Started as a reaction to the hunger, disease, poverty, & lack of medical care in the 19th century
Democracy ideology, philosophy, a theory a political system. emphasis on the individual,voluntarism,the law behind the law,emphasis on means,discussion and consent in human relations,basic equality Stresses the value of the individual.
Capitalism developed as an explanation of the industrial system Laissez-faire, gomnt has to keeps its hands off the economy. no1 tells producers what & how much to produce;decide on their own-supply/demand. Stressed the importance of competition
Basileus hereditary king
Oligarchy/Oligopoly Rule by a few. A condition of high industrial concentration in which a small number of corporations dominate an entire industry, effectively preventing price competition.
Timocracy Rule by the wealthy
Tyrranos tyrants
Unitary Gvmnts Balance of pwr lies at the center
Federal gvmts Balance of pwr lies w the subunits
Electoral Geography Studies voting districts and voting patterns
Gerrymandering If the electoral districts are unequal in population then the ballots cast by some voters outweigh those cast by others. District lines can be drawn in ways that include or exclude specific groups of voters so that one group gains an unfair advantage.
Factors of production Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship
Opportunity cost The sacrifice of doing one thing rather than another: Producing guns or producing food.
Bonds promises to repay loans with a set rate of interest
Diversification a corporation’s acquisition of controlling shares in other corporations, often in totally different industries
Multinationalism Instead of merely exporting their products to foreign lands, some corporations move the production process itself into other countries.
Microeconomics : is the study of individual behavior in the economy, as well as of specific markets. Details, the behavior of individual components of economy-what determines the price of a single product or why single consumers act as they do.
Macroeconomics Macroeconomics: deals with the national economy as a whole. National goals as maintaining full employment, limiting inflation, price level, foreign trade, and govmnt policies.
Firm the unit that decides how to use labor, land, and capital, and which goods and services to produce. Hires labor, uses the factors to produce goods and services, then sells back to other households/firms/central authorities.
GDP total output produced by the factors of production (land, labor, capital) and entrepreneurship of Americans, regardless of where these resources are located= in US or abroad
Gross national income the GDP plus any income that residents receive from foreign investments, minus any money paid out of the country to foreign investors
Multiplier effect Gov spending=more consumer spending b/c the $ the gov spends ends up being some consumers’ income then consumer spends it
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization United Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal with Canada and the U.S.
Psychosomatic suffers physical symptoms of disease that do not arise from a physical cause. Physical symptoms colitis, migraine headaches, gastritis, asthma, skin disorders, ulcers, hypertension, anorexia, and impotence or frigidity.
Neuroses/anxiety disorders mild personality disorders that do not prevent the affected individual from functioning in society. May be debilitating for the neurotic person and for those around him/her. (anxiety reaction, phobia, depression, OCD, Hypochondria, amnesia/multiple person
Sociopath (engage in antisocial behavior without anxiety or remorse), sexual deviants (transvestites, necrophiliacs, bestialists, pederasts, addicts)
Schizophrenia label applied to people for whom there seems to be no other label. Some are withdrawn, unable to interact with other people.
Paranoia the world is against them and that people around them spy on them and intend to do them harm. Some believe themselves to be great and famous personages.
Cultural transmission/differential association theory learning theory based on the proposition that deviance is learned through symbolic interaction. Learning of deviance occurs in small intimate groups (family, peer, neighborhood).
Edwin Sutherland following factors influence an individual to become deviant 1. The intensity of association with others 2. The age at which interactions take place 3. Frequency of association 4. Duration of contact 5. Number of contacts
Labeling theory Emphasis on the process by which an individual is labeled a deviant and on how the individual is treated as a consequence of having been so labeled rather than the behavior of the person.
Index crimes involve the violation of mores and include murder (homicide, involuntary/voluntary manslaughter, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, arson, and auto theft)
White-collar crimes Criminal acts committed by respectable persons,(false advertising, copyright infringement, swindling, stock manipulation, price fixing, tax evasion, embezzlement, forgery, and fraud)
Organized crime In the business of satisfying human wants that are prohibited by the ideal norms of society, and by legal codes (members provide houses of prostitution, direct illegal gambling buildings, furnish drugs, pornographic material)
Accommodation A situation in which a minority is conscious of the norms and values of the majority accepts and adapts to them, but chooses to retain its own, thus failing to participate in the host culture.
Amalgamation The result of intermarriage between distinct racial, ethnic, and cultural groups, resulting in the erasure of differences between majority and minority groups.
Anglo-conformity The attitude, once held by the majority group, that the institutions, language, and cultural patterns of England should be maintained and that WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) values be superimposed on immigrants.
Cultural pluralism An ideal condition in which the cultural distinctiveness of each ethnic, racial, and religious minority group would be maintained, while individual members would still owe allegiance to the society in general.
Aggregates People merely in the same place at the same time
Diplomacy Is the conduct of international relations by negotiation. Purpose is for each nation to pursue its national goals to its best advantage w/o offending any other nation.
Created by: 580802010