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Neurosci Olness4

Motor Systems and Tracts

The Primary Motor Cortex is Brodmann's area 4
Brodmann's area 4 includes the ____ on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. precentral gyrus
Brodmann's area 4 includes the ____ on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. paracentral lobule
The axons of the pyramidal cells in the primary motor cortex extend down through the internal capsule and synapse with either motor nuclei of the brainstem or ventral horn cells of the spinal cord
Axons from the motor cortex have ____ in the head and larynx bilateral representation
explain bilateral representation of the motor cortex concerning the head and larynx each motor cortex sends axons to the motor nuclei going to the head & laryngeal muscles on both right & left sides.
The muscles each cortical column activates are synergistic: they work together to produce coordinated movement
Stimulating a single cortical neuron in primary motor cortex can ____ tone in a group of flexor muscles at a joint and ____ tone in the antagonists of these muscles. increase tone in the flexors while decreasing tone in the antagonists
The ____ is located anterior to the upper part of the precentral gyrus. premotor cortex aka Brodmann's area 6
The supplementary motor cortex is located on the ______. medial surface of the frontal lobe
Why are the premotor and supplementary motor cortices important? They program movements that require a complex sequence of muscles (speech)
Before the motor cortices send info to the brainstem & spinal cord, they coordinate with the: basal ganglia and the cerebellum
The motor cortices send axons to the ____ & ____ (parts of basal ganglia). caudate, putamen
The caudate and putamen synapse with neurons of the ____. globus pallidus
The globus pallidus sends axons to two thalamic nuclei, the ____ and ____. ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus.
Thalamic nuclei send axons via the ____ & ____ back to the motor cortices. internal capsule & corona radiata
Lesions on the basal ganglia, subthalamic nucleus, or substantia nigra result in abnormal motor behavior, involuntary movements that cannot be controlled
Describe Parkinson's Disease Substantia nigra affected; hypertonic rigid muscles tremors in extremities (hands)
Describe Huntington's Disease (a chorea "dancing" disease) caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus affected; jerky purposeless movements in distal extremeties
Describe Athetosis Syndrome caudate and putamen affected; muscle spasms, involuntary writhing
Describe Ballismus Syndrome subthalamic nucleus affected; hyper tonic muscles, powerful uncontrollable flailing resulting in broken bones
Describe bradykinesia a slowness of movement and difficulty in both starting and ending movement associated with Parkinson's
What are the 2 primary roles of the basal ganglia? 1. communicate with the cerebral cortex 2. facilitate wanted movements and inhibit unwanted movements
The cerebral cortex interacts with the cerebellum to produce ____ movements. smooth, synergistic (coordinated) movements
Axons of the pyramidal cells in the motor cortices project down through the ____ & ____ on their way toward the cerebellum. internal capsule and cerebral peduncle
Pyramidal cells of the motor cortices project axons to the ____ (on way to cerebellum). pontine nuclei
Axons from the pontine nuclei project across the midline by way of the ____ to the the opposite cerebellar cortex. middle cerebellar peduncle
Axons from the pontine nuclei synapse directly on ____ neurons. cerebellar cortical neurons
The cerebellar cortex processes the infor and sends it to the ____. deep cerebellar nuclei.
Information leaves the cerebellum via the _____ and projects to the ventral anterior and ____ of the thalamus. superior cerebellar peduncle, ventral lateral nuclei
The ____ neurons carry information to the motor nuclei of the brainstem and spinal cord. upper motor neurons
The ____ neurons carry information from the motor nuclei of the brainstem and spinal cord to the skeletal muscles. lower motor neurons
____ send their axons directly to spinal cord motor nuclei. Corticospinal neurons
The ____ pathway is a motor pathway from motor cortices, through the red nucleus, to the spinal cord cortico-rubro-spinal (dashes for emphasis)
Corticospinal and coticrubrospinal pathways project to the spinal cord
Corticobulbar pathways project to the brainstem
Damage to upper motor neurons results in ____. Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome
Describe Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome voltional motor activity is impaired (speech). Muscles lose input from cerebral cortex and become hypertonic.
Describe Spastic Dysarthria bilateral damage to primary motor cortex poor articulation strained voice low pitch
____ are neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord whose axons go directly to skeletal muscles. lower motor neurons
Lower motor neurons are alpha and gamma motor neurons whose axons constitute the ____ of motor activity. final common pathway
Define final common pathway out of the CNS by way of peripheral nerves directly to the muscles
All of the muscles that participate in speech production are activated by ____. lower motor neurons
Speech is (more,less) affected by damage to lower motor neurons than upper motor neurons. more
Describe lower motor neuron syndrome weakness or loss of muscle tone & reduced reflexes.
Damage to lower motor neurons resuls in _____ dysarthria. flaccid dysarthria
Describe flaccid dysarthria caused by damage to brainstem and lower motor neurons (or motor cranial nerves) char: poor articulation breathiness hypernasal speech
Describe spastic dysarthria caused by damage to neurons of the primary motor cortex char: extremely poor articulation strained voice quality low pitched voice
Describe ataxic dysarthria caused by damage to the cerebellum char: irregular jerky speech and syllable repetitions
Describe hypokinetic dysarthria caused by damage to the substantia nigra (ex: Parkinson's) char: weak voice with many hesitations intermixed with brief rushes of speech
Describe hyperkinetic dysarthria caused by damage to the caudate and putamen (ex: Huntington's) char: irregular rate, pitch, loudness,pauses, and tics
Dysarthrias result in ______ in talking but no problems with ___ or language. difficulty in talking but no problem with speech comprehension
Apraxias of speech result from damage to the ___, ____, or ___ areas, which code for the sequencing of language. supplementary, premotor, or insular cortical areas
Problems caused by apraxias of speech include ____, ____, and _____. repetitions, difficulty in selecting phonemes, and inconsistent speech
Motor systems consist of ____ (list 3). direct tracts, indirect tracts, and feedback loops
Name 3 major motor systems Pyramidal systems Extrapyramidal systems Cerebellar systems
Pyramidal systems include: Pyramidal systems (direct activation): corticospinal corticonuclear (corticobulbar)
Extrapyramidal systems include Brainstem to spinal cord (indirect activation) Feedback loop to direct system via basal ganglia
The cerebellar system includes: Feedback loop to direct system via cerebellum
The structural components of a motor system includes: 1. cerebral cortex, 2. ____ of the cerebrum (basal ganglia) 3. brainstem, 4. cerebellum, 5. spinal cord, 6. PNS Subcortical nuclei of the cerebrum: Basal Ganglia;
What are the components of the Basal Ganglia? putamen, caudate, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra
The components of the motor system cortex include the _____ (emotion) and ______ (motivation to move). limbic association (emotion) pre-frontal association (motivation)
The cerebellum is connected to the brain by ______. 3 cerebellar peduncles
Pyramidal systems are the primary, ____ pathway from cortex to (voluntary) muscles. Pyramidal systems are the primary direct activation pathway
The pyramidal systems include the _____ system and the _____ system (formerly the corticobulbar system). Corticospinal system Corticonuclear system
The pyramidal systems are responsible for ________ control for small groups of muscles. precise
The majority of fibers for the pyramidal systems begin in the _____. primary motor cortex (pre-central gyrus)
Pyramidal tracts originate in cortex and consist of ____ neurons (1st order) and ____ neurons (2nd order) upper motor and lower motor neurons
During the descent, the axons of the upper motor neuron send off ____ to the cerebellum (via the pons), as input for coordination of movement. collaterals
Pyramidal innervation is primarily ____. contralateral.
Extrapyramidal system (outside of pyramidal system)maintain ____ (list 3) of larger muscle groups. muscle tone, body posture, and reflex responses
The extrapyramidal system has 4 tracts to the spinal cord: reticulospinal vestbulospinal tectospinal rubrospinal
Reticulospinal tract muscle tone, stabilize proximal body parts
Vestibulospinal tract maintain antigravity tone for overall posture
Tectospinal tract reactive orienting head and eye movements when there is a sudden visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimulus
Rubrospinal tract functions in rudimentary way like corticospinal
An extrapyramidal feedback loop circulates from ____ to ___ and back to the _____. feedback loop from cortex to basal ganglia and back to cortex
An extrapyramidal feedback loop helps with: movement initiation and inhibition
The cerebellar feedback loop Coordinates movements via feedback loop from ____ to ___ and back to the ____. cortex to cerebellum to cortex
When cerebellum or cerebellar feedback loop is damaged, it results in ____(discoordination). In speech system, this is called ____. ataxia; ataxic dysarthria
Speech motor systems control and coordinate over ____ muscles. 100
Approximately __ speech sounds are uttered / second. 14
Motor feedback loops help ___ and ____ movement. initiate / inhibit or smoothen / coordinate
Created by: MPJ



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