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Audiology

Chapters 1, 2, & 3 Intro. to Audiology 11ed

QuestionAnswer
An organization founded in 1988, of, by, and for audiologists AAA (founded)
An organization that adopted the new discipline of audiology in 1947, providing audiology with its first professional home (Abbrev.) ASHA
The treatment of those with hearing loss that has begun after birth, usually after speech and language development, to improve over all communication ability Aural Rehabilitation
The branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the ear and related structures. Otology
The number of existing cases of disease or disorder in a given population at a given time. Prevalence
medical, pediatric, industrial, educational, hearing aid dispensing/rehabilitative Audiology Specialties
American Auditory Society, American Academy of Audiology, Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Academy of Dispensing Audiologists Professional Associations
The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age
At its origin, audiology pooled its knowledge base from speech pathology, otology, psychology
The organization that provided the first 'home' of the profession of audiology was (spelled out) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (home)
The impact of hearing loss is greater for more severe hearing loss, may create an economic burden in excess of one million dollars across an individual's lifetime, can also affect social maturation
The word audiology combines the Latin root, "audire," with the Greek suffix, "logos," is often reported to have been coined by the "Father of Audiology," Dr. Raymond Carhart, means the study of hearing
The most common occupational disease according to NIOSH noise induced hearing loss
The third largest employment affiliation for audiologists is private practice
A consumer oriented association for those with hearing loss SHHH
An audiology sub-specialty that works to protect workers' hearing industrial audiology
Largely regarded as the 'Father of Audiology' Raymond Carhart
One of the primary, yet avoidable, causes of insidious hearing loss noise exposure
Association that first set forth the notion of audiology as a doctoral level profession ADA
A document outlining the purview of profession scope of practice
Training for those with hearing loss that is acquired after the development of spoken language aural rehabilitation
National association devoted exclusively to audiology concerns AAA (concerns)
The first professional home for audiologists (Abbrev.)** ASHA **
An audiology subspecialty that works closely with the schools educational audiology
Medical subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and the treatment of diseases of the ear otology
________ developed from the professions of otology and speech-language pathology Audiology
A founder of audiology, often called the "father of audiology," is Dr. Raymond Carhart
Two professional documents that govern the practice of audiology are the scope of practice & code of ethics
The entry-level degree for the profession of audiology is Doctor of Audiology (AU.D.)
The credential required for the practice of audiology in the U.S. state license
The two organizations most closely associated with audiology are American Academy of Audiology, and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Hearing loss in children is a concern only due to the possible impact on communication.* False*
Ear infections in children may or may not be the only cause of hearing loss
List three areas that are impacted by hearing loss in adults besides hearing sensitivity general health, psychological well-belling, generated income
The work of audiologists in areas of noise are called industrial audiology
Why is it important for SLP's to have a working knowledge of audiology? Hearing loss in children directly relates to speech & language development, older adult's age-related communication disorders. Frequent coexistence of hearing disorders and speech/language problems.
List the specialty areas of audiology and the types of employment settings in which they may be practiced medical - community/regional hospitals, education - schools, Dispensing/Rehabilitative - hospitals, Industrial - part-time contracted consultants, Recreational/Animal, Pediatric
What purpose do professional societies serve for the profession of audiology and its practitioners? set standards for the practice and accreditation of academic programs. ASHA- education/professional & scientific journals. Advancement of audio logical services.
Evolution of Audiology (part 1) Prior WWII, hearing-care services were provided by physicians and commercial hearing aid dealers. Hearing protection wasn't that common.
Evolution of Audiology (part 2) As a result of WWII many servicemen had hearing problems, which led to the development of otology, and SLP in a military-based aural rehabilitation centers.
Evolution of Audiology (part 3) As a result of servicemen with hearing issues, they thought it would be a good idea to offer SLP & other services to the public.
Evolution of Audiology (part 4) Audiology developed rapidly as a profession soon after U.S., is somehow seen as the model of practice for this field.
Discuss the economic burden hearing loss presents to society American families loosing $100 bil. in annual income by failing to treat hearing problems. Costs - educational programs rehabilitation services for those with permanent hearing loss and lost income when hearing impairment truncates one's earning potential
What is the difference between a license to practice and one's professional certification? Certification is not a legal requirement for the practice of audiology. A license to practice audiology or professional registration as an audiologist is a legal requirement to practice the profession of audiology
Name the three main parts of the ear outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
What is the connection between the inner ear and the brain? auditory nerve
What are the three main types of hearing loss? Conductive, sensory/neural, mixed
Every tuning fork is designed to vibrate at a single frequency
the Schwabach test is designed to compare the patient's hearing by bone conduction, to.. the examiner's hearing by bone conduction
The Rinne test is designed to compare the patient's hearing by.. the patients hearing by air conduction to his/her hearing by bone conduction
The Bing test determines the presence of the occlusion effect, the perception of increased loudness of bone-conducted tone with the outer ear is occluded.
The Weber test is one of lateralization
What information is derived from bone conduction that cannot be inferred from air conduction? Air conduction is tested by using an earphone of some sort. Bone conduction tests only part of the system, cochlea.
Why is it a good idea to use more than one tuning-fork when doing tuning-fork tests? by using forks with various properties, hearing sensitivity through several pitch ranges may be sampled. Several forks are available that usually correspond to notes on the musical scale of C.
Why are statements regarding the results of different tuning-fork tests limited to the pitch of the fork used? Because hearing sensitivity is often different for different pitches.
What is implied if a person's hearing sensitivity is reduced by air conduction but is normal by bone conduction? If patients have a conductive hearing loss, bone conduction is normal, they will hear the tone for at least as long as the examiner, sometimes longer.
What are some of the problems with tuning-fork tests? If the fork is struck against too solid an object, dropped, or otherwise abused, its vibrations may be altered. Hearing sensitivity is often different for different pitches amongst people. Tuning forks, assume that the examiner has normal hearing.
What is the Stenger principle? It states that if two tones that are identical in all ways except loudness are introduced simultaneously into both ears, only the louder tone will be perceived
Air conduction (define) the course of sounds that are conducted to the inner ear by way of the outer and middle ear
Attenuation (define) reduction in energy
Audiology (define) reference to the sense of hearing
Auditory nerve (define) the VIII cranial nerve connecting the inner ear with the brain
Bone conduction (define) transmission of sound to the inner ear by vibration of the bones of the skull
Cochlea (define) the portion of the inner ear responsible for the hearing function
conductive hearing loss (define) the loss of sound sensitivity because of damage to the outer or middle ear
Inner ear (define) the portion of the hearing apparatus that converts mechanical energy to electrochemical energy
Lateralization (define) these sense that a sound is in the right or left ear
Mastoid process (define) the bony prominence behind the outer ear
Middle ear (define) the air-filled cavity behind the eardrum membrane that holds the three smallest bones of the body
Mixed hearing loss (define) the sum of a combination of conductive and sensor-neural hearing losses in the same ear
Outer ear (define) the most external portion of the hearing mechanism
Sensorineural hearing loss (define) loss of hearing because of damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve
Stenger Principle (define) a tone presented to both ears simultaneously is perceived only in the ear in which is louder
Auditory nerve carries impulses to the... brain
The inner ear is a... snail-like structure, transducer
The middle ear is an air filled space with a... mucous membrane lining, eardrum membrane, & also contains the tiniest bones on the body
the outer ear is an external ear canal... that is funnel-shaped structure, open air-filled space
When air conduction is normal and bone conduction is normal, the interpretation is normal hearing
the bone-conduction pathway is the inner ear, auditory nerve
The conductive mechanism is comprised of the outer and middle ear
The sensorineural mechanism is comprised of inner ear and auditory nerve
the transducer of the inner ear is the cochlea
The way an organism is made anatomy
relating to the sense of hearing auditory
the way an organism functions physiology
sound travels through air in the form of waves
three types of waves discussed in this book are transverse, longitudinal & sine
Waves are described as a series of compressions & refractions
The two major effects on frequency are mass & stiffness
The velocity of sound is its speed
Formula for wave length is W = v/f
The number of bear per second is determined by the difference between two frequencies
The lowest frequency of vibration in a complex sound is called the fundamental frequency
formant frequencies of the human voice are determined by the vocal tract
two sine waves may be contrasted by their differences in frequency, intensity & phase (relationship in time between two or more waves)
Decibels cannot be simply added or subtracted because they are logarithmic
the decibel reference on audiometers is hearing level (HL)
Any discussion of decibels must include their reference
The psychological correlate of frequency/ the subjective impression of the highness and lowness of a sound's frequency is pitch
the ability to localize sound requires that the individual have similar hearing in both ears
the threshold shift of one sound that is caused by the introduction of a second sound is called masking
Audiometer earphones are used to test hearing by air... conduction
An oscillator is placed on the forehead or mastoid to test hearing by bone... conduction
The decibel reference used in sound-level meters is sound-pressure level
Pure Tone (define) a tone of only frequency with no overtones
Describe the Weber Test A tuning-fork test to determine whether a bone-conducted tone is heard in the right, left or both ears.
In Depth Look at: Rinne Test compares AC sensitivity to BC, frequency must be specified, louder by AC means normal or sensorineural loss, louder by BC means conductive loss, stem held against mastoid, tine held to ear
In Depth Look at: Schwabach Test compares patient's BC hearing to examiners, frequency must be specified, stem held against forehead
In Depth Look at: Bing Test absence of occlusion effect means conductive hearing loss, frequency must be specified, presence of OE means normal hearing or sensorineural hearing, outer ear is occluded, stem held against forehead
In Depth Look at: Weber Test frequency must be specified, heard in better ear in sensorineural hearing loss, hear in poorer ear in conductive loss, stem held against forehead
the extent of the vibratory movement of a mass to the point furthest from its position of rest/ maximum extent of vibratory movement amplitude (define)
a waveform that does not repeat itself over time aperiodic wave (define)
periodic variations of the amplitude of a tone caused by a second tone slightly different frequency beats (define)
a unit of expressing ratios in base 10 logarithms Bel (define)
the constant colliding movement of molecules in a medium Brownian motion (define)
reduction in amplitude to zero because of interaction of two tones 180 degrees out of phase cancellation (define)
a pure-tone constituent of a complex wave component (define)
the portion of a sound wave where molecules become more dense compression (define)
a sound wave representing simple harmonic motion that begins at 90 or 270 degrees cosine wave (define)
progressive lessening in the amplitude of a vibrating body damping (define)
the frequency of a tone produced by two tones of slightly different frequency difference tone (define)
a unit of force just sufficient to accelerate a mass of 1 gram at 1 cm per second squared Dyne (define)
the ability of a mass to return to its natural shape elasticity (define)
a logarithm exponent (define)
the impetus required to increase the velocity of a vibrating body force (define)
the number of complete oscillations of a vibrating body per unit of time frequency (define)
the lowest frequency of vibration in a complex wave fundamental frequency (define)
a whole-number multiple of the fundamental frequency of a complex wave harmonic (define)
the amount of energy per unit of area intensity (define)
the exponent that tells the power to which a number is raised Logarithm (define)
a unit of pitch measurement Mel (define)
a pressure equal to one-millionth of standard atmospheric pressure microbar (define)
a force equal to 100,000 dynes Newton (define)
the difference between tones separated by a frequency ratio of 2:1 Octave (define)
the to-and-fro movements of a mass oscillation (define)
like a harmonic but numbered differently overtone (define)
a unit of pressure equal to 1 Newtwon per meter square Pascal (define)
the duration of one cycle of vibration period (define)
a waveform that repeats itself over time Periodic wave (define)
the relationship in time between two or more waves phase (define)
a unit of loudness LEVEL Phon (define)
the portion of a sound wave where the molecules become less dense rarefaction (define)
the ability of a mass to vibrate at a particular frequency with minimum external force resonance (define)
the waveform of a pure tone showing simple harmonic motion Sinusoid (define)
a unit of loudness MEASUREMENT Sone (define)
the speed of a sound wave in a given direction velocity (define)
a unit of power Watt (define)
a series of moving impulses set up by a vibration wave (define)
the distance between the same points on two successive cycles of a tone & sound velocity divided by frequency wavelength (define)
Categories: Physics of Sound Waves complex waves, longitudinal, sine, transverse
Categories: Vibrations forced vibration, free vibration
Categories: Frequency cycles per second, Hertz, length effects, mass effects
Categories: Intensity Decibel, power, pressure, work
Categories: Physics of Sound Decibels hearing level, sensation level, sound-pressure level
Categories: Spectrum fourier analysis (analysis breaks a complex wave into its components)
Categories: Psychological Acoustics loudness, pitch, quality
Units: Force Dyne (dyn), Newton (N)
Units: Intensity Watt per centimeter squared (W/cm2), Watt per meter squared (W/m2)
Units: Length centimeter (cm), meter (m)
Units: Area centimeter squared (cm2), meter squared (m2)
Units: Acceleration centimeter per second squared (cm/s2), meters per second squared (m/s2)
The log of 1 is... 0
the velocity of sound in air is said to be... 1130ft/sec
the quality of a sound is also called its... timbre
the joule is a unit of... work
masking may take place when... the masker precedes the signal, the masker and signal coexist in time, the signal precedes the masker
The IL of a sound is 50 db. Its intensity output is... 10^(-7) watt/m^2
sounds we hear may be the result of... reflecting waves, composite waves, incident waves
Acceleration is... velocity divided by time
Sound intensity... decreases inversely as a function of the square of the distance of the source
The condition in which air molecules are packed most tightly together is called the... compression
in the propagation of a sound, as air molecules are moved further from each other, they are said to be... rarefied
the period of a 100 Hz Tone is... 1/100 sec
When the expression intensity level (L) is used, this means that the reference is not... 0.0002 dyn/cm^2
When the expression sound-pressure level (SPL) is used, this means that the reference is... 20 micropascals
if the firth harmonic of a sound is 500 Hz, the fundamental frequency is... 100 Hz
At its resonant frequency, a mass vibrates... with the least amount of applied energy
the velocity of sound is... greater in denser media
a SPLof a sound with a pressure output of 200 micropascals is... 20 dB
the sensation level is... number of decibels above the threshold of an individual
a unit of work... ERG
complete sequence of events of a sine wave through 360 degrees... cycle
a unit of impedance... OHM
a short-term echo... reverberation
kind of wave showing simple harmonic motion... SINE
concentration of energy in the spectrum of a vowel... formant
the ration between two sound pressures or two sound powers... decibel
lowest intensity at which a sound can be heard... threshold
one thing that should always be specified when reporting the results of tuning-for tests is the... frequency of the fork
in unilateral conductive hearing loss, the Weber test will result in the sound being heard in the... poorer ear
a patient has a severe sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear and a normal hearing in the right ear. Results on the Rinne test would be... left false negative, right positive
Based on the proposition that your patient has a moderate conductive hearing loss in the left ear and a moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear - results on the Bing test should be... positive right, negative left
a normal Schwabach can mean... normal hearing or conductive hearing loss
based on the proposition that your patient has a moderate conductive hearing loss in the left ear and a moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear. Results on Rinne test should be... false negative right, negative left
based on the proposition that your patient has a moderate conductive hearing loss in the left ear and a moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear - if masking is used in the non-test ear, results on the Schwabach should be... diminished right, prolonged left
in bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, the tuning fork tests will theoretically show... Bing positive; Rinne positive
a problem that tuning-fork tests have in common with any measurement made by bone conduction is that... the patient may feel the vibrations, the pressure against the skull is variable, the non-test ear may hear the tone by bone conduction
the portion of the tuning fork held by the examiner and pressed against the skull... stem
a tuning-fork test involving lateralization... tines
Test Wednesday 10/15/2014 You may make a 3x5 notecard and write on both sides with whatever information you would like. Test Wednesday 10/15/2014 You may make a 3x5 notecard and write on both sides with whatever information you would like.
Created by: brazil