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ESQB - Court Cases

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

John Marshall, 1803, "midnight judges" - First decision to declare an act passed by Congress unconstitutional and void. Established judicial review. Marbury v. Madison
John Marshall, 1819, Second Bank of the United States - Called for a broad interpretation of the powers of the federal government. McCulloch v. Maryland
John Marshall, 1824, steamboat monopoly in New York - The states and federal government are not equal sovereignties. Federal power is specifically enumerated, but within its sphere Congress is supreme. Gibbons v. Ogden
Roger B. Taney, 1857, slavery in federal territories - Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories. Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. Dred Scott v. Sandford
Melville Fuller, 1896, seperate but equal - Provided constitutional sanction for Jim Crow laws in the South. Plessy v. Ferguson
Harlan Fiske Stone, 1943, Japanese prison camps - Upheld the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans. Any American citizen can be held in prison or concentration camps without trial or hearing. Korematsu v. United States
Earl Warren, 1954, public school segregation - Overturned "seperate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson. Schools were to be desegregated with all possible speed. Brown v. Board of Education
Earl Warren, 1961, 4th Amendment rights - Determined that evidence obtained through a search that violates the 4th Amendment is inadmissible in state courts. Warrant is necessary for search of property, even under reasonable suspicion. Mapp v. Ohio
Earl Warren, 1963, 6th and 14th Amendment rights - Protected the rights of accused criminals and extended the guarantees in the Bill of Rights to state actions. Gideon v. Wainwright
Earl Warren, 1966, 14th Amendment - Origin of "Miranda rights". One of the most controversial decisions of the Warren court. Miranda v. Arizona
Earl Warren, 1969, student freedom of speech - Ruled that students are entitled to exercise their constitutional rights, even while in school. School officials must provide constitutionally valid reasons for regulating student expression. Tinker v. Des Moines
Warren E. Burger, 1973, abortion - Legalized abortion in the first trimester. Right to abort ruled to be part of a woman's "right to privacy". Roe v. Wade
Warren E. Burger, 1974, Nixon and the Watergate scandal - President's right to executive privilege is not absolute. United States v. Nixon
William Rehnquist, 1989, burning the American flag - Determined that such behavior is protected by the 1st Amendment. Government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea offensive. Texas v. Johnson
Earl Warren, 1962, voting district apportionment - Voters have a right to challenge the apportionment of state legislative districts in ways that dilute the voting power of urban voters. Baker v. Carr
John Marshall, 1831, relocation of Cherokee Indians - Case was not heard because Cherokee nation was not a state. Relationship of the tribes to the United States is that of a "ward to its guardian". Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
John Marshall, 1816, Supreme Court authority over state courts - Supreme Court has ultimate authority to review and overturn the decisions of the state courts. First case to assert this. Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
Earl Warren, 1964, freedom of speech - Held that freedom of speech is not dependent on truth, popularity, or usefulness. Paved the way for news organizations covering the civil-rights movement. New York Times v. Sullivan
Roger B. Taney, 1837, obligation of contract - Rights granted in a legislative charter should be interpreted as narrowly as possible and any ambiguity should be interpreted in the public's interest. Condemned monopolies. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Edward D. White, 1919, Espionage Act - Ruled that the act did not violate the 1st Amendment because speech encouraging insuboordination isn't protected. Held that the conviction of Schenck for distributing anti-war materials was constitutional. Schenck v. United States
Created by: majorpayne14