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A&P Deane

For Communication Disorders

The space between the vocal folds is the _____. Glottis
The _____ is the primary muscle responsible for change of vocal frequency. Cricothyroid
The _____ effect states that given a constant volume flow of air or fluid, at a point of constriction there will be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase in velocity of the flow. Bernoulli
_____________ is the process of capturing air in the thorax to provide muscles with a structure upon which to push or pull. Abdominal Fixation
In _________, the vocal folds are adducted before the initiation of expiratory flow. Glottal Attack
In _________, the vocal folds are adducted after the initiation of the expiratory flow. Breathy Attack
In __________, the vocal folds are adducted simultaneously with initiation of expiratory flow. Simultaneous Attack
During modal phonation, the vocal folds open from ____________ to _________ and close from ___________ to ____________. Inferior, Superior; Inferior, Superior
The minimum subglottal driving pressure for speech is _________. 3 cm H2O to 5 cm H2O
In the mode of vibration known as ____________, the vocal folds vibrate at a much lower rate than in modal phonation, and the folds exhibit a syncopated vibratory pattern. Glottal Fry
In the mode of vibration known as ___________, the vocal folds lengthen and become extremely thin and reedlike. Falsetto
Presence of vocal nodules or other space occupying laryngeal pathology may result in _____________. Breathy Phonation
To increase vocal intensity, one must ______ subglottal pressure and _____ medial compression. Increase, Increase
To Increase vocal fundamental frequency, one must __________ vocal fold tension by _________ the vocal folds. Increase, Lengthening
_____________ is the pitch of phonation that is optimal or most appropriate for an individual. Optimal Pitch
_______________ is the vocal pitch habitually used during speech. Habitual Pitch
As vocal intensity increases, the closed phase of the vibratory cycle _________. Increases
______________ are the parameters of speech above the phonic level. List them. Suprasegmentals. They include: pitch, intonation, loudness, stress, duration, and rhythm.
_________ refers to changes in pitch Intonation
The melodic envelope that contains the sentence and marks the sentence type: Intonation
__________ provides emphasis to syllables or words through both intensity changes and frequency changes. Stress
__________ is the level of sound pressure of the speech signal. Vocal Intensity
_________ the vocal folds to initiate phonation and _________ the vocal folds to terminate phonation. adduct, abduct
The ____________ muscle rocks the arytenoid cartilage on its axis, tipping the vocal folds in and slightly down. Lateral Cricoarytenoid Muscle
The ________________ muscle rocks the arytenoid out. Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle
The _____________ muscle draws the posterior surfaces of the arytenoids closer together. Transverse Arytenoid Muscle
The ______________ muscle assists the vocal folds to dip downward when they are adducted. Oblique Arytenoid Muscle
The ____________ & ______________ muscles function to increase tension of the vocal folds, therefore increasing the fundamental frequency. Thyrovocalis and Cricothyroid Muscles
List the Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx Thyrovocalis, Thyromuscularis, Cricothyroid, Lateral and Posterior Cricoarytenoid, Transverse and Oblique Interarytenoid, and Superior Thyroarytenoid Muscles
List the Extrinsic Muscles of the Larynx Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles
The ___________ and __________ elevate the hyoid bone. Digastricus Anterior and Digastricus Posterior
The ___________ elevates the hyoid bone and draws if forward. Geniohyoid Muscle
The _____________ & _____________ muscles elevate the larynx. Thyropharyngeus and Cricopharyngeus
These 3 muscles depress the larynx: Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and Omohyoid Muscles.
____________ are found between the tongue and the epiglottis, in folds formed by the lateral and median glossoepiglottic ligaments. Valleculae
List the paired cartilages of the Larynx: Arytenoid, Corniculate, and Cuneiform
List the unpaired cartilages of the Larynx: Cricoid, Thyroid, and Epiglottis
____________ is speech with little or no perceived variation in pitch. Monopitch
_______ is a quality of unvarying vocal loudness. Monoloud.
Changes in vocal fundamental frequency are governed by the tension of the ___________ and their _____________. vocal folds, mass per unit length
Pitch Range The range of phonation possible, calculated as the highest frequency of vibration minus the lowest frequency of vibration.
___________ is a harsh sound produced upon inhalation or exhalation. Laryngeal Stridor
_____________ is repeated vibration of a body at the same frequency oscillation
___________is the combination of changes in fundamental frequency and vocal intensity that provides linguistically relevant information Prosody
__________ is abnormal increase in muscle tone. Hypertonus
The mode of vibration used for daily speaking modal register
the mode of phonation produced with extra airflow through the partially adducted vocal folds Breathy (pressed) Phonation
Speech produced without vocal fold vibration by causing air to pass along edges of the tensed vocal folds, thus producing a friction sound source Whipsered Speech
________ is the loss of voicing Aphonia
________ is the loss of voluntary motor function due to lesion in the nervous system Paralysis
________ is weakness arising from lesion in the nervous system Paresis
________ are muscles with both origin and insertion in the larynx. Intrinsic Muscles
_______ are muscles with one attachment in the larynx and one attachment outside the larynx. Extrinsic Muscles
________ is an indentation or cavity Fossa
Valleculae and Pyriform Sinuses are __________. Pharyngeal Recesses
________ is a pair of small indentations between the tongue and epiglottis. Valleculae
The _________ is composed of the upper quadrangular membranes and aryepiglottic folds, the lower conus elasticus, and the vocal ligament. fibroelastic membrane
________ is the entrance of the larynx. Aditus
________ refers to cavities or passageways to structures. Ventricular
________ is the anterior-most region of the glottis. Anterior commissure of the glottis
________ is the posterior-most region of the glottis. Posterior commissure of the glottis
The thyroid and cricoid articulate by means of the __________, which lets the 2 cartilages come closer together in front. Cricothyroid Joint
The _____ stretches across the space between the greater cornu of the hyoid and the _____. thyroid membrane, lateral thyroid cartilage
The vestibule is the cavity between the aditus and the _____ folds ventricular folds or false vocal folds.
the space between the false vocal folds and the true vocal folds laryngeal ventricle (sinus)
The anterior extension of the laryngeal ventricle is the ____ and has 60+ mucous glands laryngeal saccule
In adults at rest, the glottis is approximately ____ mm long and ___ mm wide. 20 mm by 8 mm.
The anterior ____ of the vocal margin is made up of soft tissue. In adult males the free margin is approx ___ mm long and in adult females it is approx. ____ mm. 3/5's, males: 15 mm, females: 12 mm
The posterior ____ of the vocal folds is the cartilage of the arytenoids. It is aka the cartilaginous glottis and may be between ___ and ___ mm long. 2/5's, 4 to 8 mm
On the lateral surfaces of the cricoid are _______ for the arytenoids and the thyroid cartilage. facets marking the point of articulation
The thyroid cartilage has 2 plates called _____ that join at the ______. thyroid laminae; thyroid angle
The superior most point of the thyroid angle is the _____. thyroid notch
On the lateral superficial aspect of the thyroid laminae there is the ____. oblique line
The ____ on the arytenoid projects toward the thyroid notch. vocal process
The ____ on the arytenoid is the point of attachment for vocal fold adductors/abductors. muscular process
The epiglottis attaches to the thyroid cartilage by the ______ ligament thyroepiglottic ligament
The epiglottis is joined to the arytenoid cartilages via _____. aryepiglottic folds
The epiglottis attaches to the root of the tongue by the median _______ fold and the paired _______ folds. glosso-epiglottic; lateral glosso-epiglottic
Nonspeech Laryngeal Functions Coughing Throat Clearing Abdominal Fixation Laryngeal Dilation (abduction) Swallowing
Laryngeal Functions for Speech Phonation
Vocal Attack The process of bringing the vocal folds together to begin phonation, requiring muscular action
Types of Vocal Attack: Simultaneous, Breathy, Glottal
Bad Vocal Attacks Hard Glottal and Breathy Phonation (extreme)
Sustained Phonation Maintenance of laryngeal posture thru tonic contraction of musculature
Modes of Vocal Fold Vibration Vertical Mode: open from inferior to superior and also close from inferior to superior Anterior-Posterior Mode: open from posterior to anterior, but closure at the end of the cycle is made by the medial edge of the v.f., with posterior edge closing last
Modal Register Modal Register is used for conversation. 2 variations: Pressed – medial compression of the vf’s is greatly increased. Breathy – medial compression of the vf’s is greatly decreased; variations = air wastage, inefficient.
Vocal Register: Glottal Fry (Pulse Register) Extremely low pitch, rough in nature decreased respiratory support (takes about 2cm H²O). Tension of the thyrovocalis is reduced. Vocal folds are adducted about 90% of the time.
Vocal Register: Falsetto Highest register; vocal folds lengthen and become thin, tend to vibrate along the bowed margins. They make contact only briefly and the degree of movement is reduced
Vocal Register: Whistle a register above falsetto; not a mode of vibration as much as it is a result of turbulence across the vocal folds – occurs as high as 2500 Hz.
Vocal Register: Whispering : not a true phonatory mode, but it does require laryngeal adjustments.
Pitch Perception of frequency
Average Fundamental Frequency Reflects habitual pitch over a longer averaging period (sustained vowel productions, reading passages, conversational sample).
Pitch Range The lowest to highest pitch a person can produce (usually 2 octaves).
Pitch Changing Produced by changing tension, length, and mass of the vocal folds: Increase tension, increase pitch Increase length, increase pitch Decrease mass, increase pitch
Intensity Changes Loudness is the correlate of intensity. Increase vocal intensity by increasing subglottal pressure and medial compression. Can increase pitch without increasing intensity – separate mechanisms
Terminate Phonation Abduct the vocal folds
Caroline is ___. Cool
Created by: MPJ



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