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Clinical Chem Cards

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of calcium in the body? Decreases neuromuscular excitability, Important for coagulation, and activator for enzymes
What is the function of phosphorus in the body? Phospholipid in cell membranes, production of cell energy, needed for cellular replication
List three forms of calcium that is found in serum Protein-bound calcium, Free calcium, Complex calcium
How does an acidic environment affect calcium levels? Causes calcium levels to increase.
How does PTH affect calcium levels in the body? Partners with Vitamin D to move calcium from bones to the plasma. This will increase the serum calcium levels.
How does Calcitonin affect calcium levels in the body? antagonist of PTH. It lowers ionized calcium and decreased bone resorption.
How does Vitamin D affect calcium levels in the body? sidekick to PTH. It increases absorption of calcium in intestines and bone.
How does plasma protein affect calcium levels in the body? Causes total calcium levels to decrease
How does serum phosphate affect calcium levels in the body? Inverse relationship. high levels = low calcium low levels = high calcium
How does a basic environment affect calcium levels? Causes calcium levels to decrease.
Hyperparathyroidism Serum Calcium: Increased Urinary Calcium: Increased Serum Phosphorus: Decreased Urinary Phosphorus: Increased PTH Levels: Increased Vitamin D Levels: Increased
Hypoparathyroidism Serum Calcium: Decreased Urinary Calcium: Decreased Serum Phosphorus: Increased Urinary Phosphorus: Decreased PTH Levels: Decreased Vitamin D Levels: Decreased
Hypervitaminosis D Serum Calcium: Increased Urinary Calcium: Increased Serum Phosphorus: Increased Urinary Phosphorus: Increased PTH Levels: Decreased Vitamin D Levels: Increased
What three methods are used for calcium determinations? Atomic Absorption spectophotometry Colormetric Arsenazo III
What method is used for phosphorus determination? Molybdate
Major intracellular cation. Not a true trace element. Found in bone and muscle. Important for enzye reactions. Magnesium
Intricate part of metaloenzymes Copper
2nd most important element. Major factor in synthesis of connective tissues. Zinc
Absorbed and distributed to bone and teeth. Renal excretion regulates levels. Fluoride
What are the clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency? Tetani, Convulsions, Hyper-irritability of nerves
What is the preferred method of analysis for magnesium? Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
What are the precautions for magnesium specimens? Serum should be separated from RBCs and hemolyzed samples are NOT acceptable.
What are the symptoms of zinc deficiency? depressed growth, increased incidence of infection, diarrhea, skin lesions
List five tissues or fluids used for zinc determination: serum/plasma, hair, urine, RBCs, and saliva
What is the method of analysis for zinc? Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
What are the symptoms of copper deficiency? tired, fatigue, lightheadedness, anemia, leukopenia, myelopathy
What is the cause of MENKE'S SYNDROME? x-linked disorder. defect in copper intestinal absorption
What is the significance of MENKE'S SYNDROME? serum copper and ceruloplasm will decrease, resulting in coarse/sparse hair.
What is the cause of WILSON'S DISEASE? genetic disorder. Fleischer-Keyser rings in the eye
What is the significance of WILSON'S DISEASE? normal serum copper and decreased ceruloplasm. Urine copper is increased.
What method is used for copper analysis? AAS and colormetrics
What is the significance of low fluoride? osteoporosis / brittle bones
What is the significance of high fluoride? modeled or pitted enamel on teeth
What is the method of determination for fluoride? ISE - Ion Selective Electrode
What three parameters assess renal function? Urine volume Glomerular filtration rate osmolality
What is a clearance test? the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR
Creatinine Clearance Formula CrCL= (UxF)/P X 1.73/A
What test results are useful in monitoring fluid and electrolyte imbalance? electrolyte panel, osmolality, Na, K, Bicarb
What test results are useful in monitoring nitrogen imbalance? creatinine, urea/BUN, uric acid, protein, albumin
What test results are useful in monitoring osteodystrophy? calcium, vitamin D, parathyroid, phosphorus, ALP
What test results are useful in monitoring hepatitis? ALT, AST, Bilirubin
List the SIX normal liver functions 1) carb metabolism 2) protein metabolism 3) lipid biosynthesis 4) storage depot 5) bile pigment formation 6) metabolic end product excretion and detoxification
Differentiate between the three types of jaundice Prehepatic: hemolytic event. TB is INC HEPATIC: virus attacks hepatocytes. TB & CB are INC POST HEPATIC: obstructive. TB increases. NO urobilinogen
List the 5 types of hepatitis: A- Most common. Highest in kids. B- Chronic viral infections C- Body fluids & blood D- Co-infectin E-
Created by: ashleywest16