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Win 10 - Ch 4 Terms

Win 10 - Ch 4 Managing Disks Terms

active partition A primary partition in the partition table as the partition to use when loading the rest of the operating system. Only one primary partition can be marked as active at a time. The primary partition’s boot sector is used to load the rest of the os.
basic disk An older, IBM-originated method used to organize disk space for x86 computers into primary, extended, and logical partitions. Basic disk technology is supported by many legacy operating systems and may be required in certain multiboot configurations.
boot partition The partition or volume used to load the operating system from a hard disk. The system partition is processed before the boot partition. The boot partition can be the same partition as the system partition.
boot sector A term used to describe a special-purpose block of data on a disk/partition essential to the boot process. The BIOS will process the boot sector of the MBR to find a partition to boot.
cluster A unit of storage for reading and writing file data in a file system. Cluster size is based on the sector size of a disk and the number of sectors used per cluster. Cluster sizes typically range from 512 bytes to 64 KB.
defragmentation The process of ordering data on the hard disk in a contiguous fashion to minimize the delays in reading or writing data. This attempts to minimize the mechanical delay caused by having to move read/write mechanisms from one region of the disk to another.
Disk Management console An MMC console snap-in used to administer hard disks in Windows 7.
drive letter A letter of the alphabet assigned to a formatted partition or volume as a reference point for future access by the user or their applications.
dynamic disk A new method used to organize disk space into volumes. First introduced with Windows 2000, the dynamic disk method is seen as an improvement over basic disk technology. Not all operating systems support the dynamic disk method of organizing disk space.
extended partition A reserved block of space on a basic disk. No more than one extended partition can exist on a single basic disk. Logical partitions are created within the extended partition. Extended partitions cannot be formatted with a file system directly.
File Allocation Table (FAT) A file system used to organize files and folders in a partition or volume. A master FAT is used to indicate what files/folders exist within the file system. The common versions of FAT include FAT16 and FAT32.
Foreign Disk A dynamic disk that is recognized as not belonging to the computer it is currently installed in. Until the disk is imported, to change its dynamic disk computer membership, the volumes it contains are not accessible.
logical partition A reserved block of space on a basic disk. Logical partitions can only be created within an extended partition. As long as free space exists in an extended partition, a new logical partition can be created.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The Master Boot Record exists at the very first sector of an hard disk. It contains code to start the load process for an OS from a partition or volume on the disk, a partition table, and a signature sequence of bytes used to identify the disk to the OS.
mirrored volume A RAID 1 implementation using dynamic disks.
mount point An empty folder in an NTFS-formatted file system that is used to point to another FAT, FAT32, or NTFS partition.
New Technology File System (NTFS) A file system introduced with Windows NT. NTFS supports advanced features to add reliability, security, and flexibility that file systems such as FAT and FAT32 do not have.
partition table A data structure contained in the MBR that is used to identify reserved areas of disk space for hard disks formatted for x86 computers.
primary partition A reserved region of disk space on a basic disk that is capable of loading an OS. The first sector of the primary partition is also known as a boot sector and stores the code for beginning the operating system load process from that primary partition.
RAID 0 A collection of disks that combine their storage capacity by striping data across all drives. Data is written in a fixed block size, typically sized in KB, in a sequential fashion to each disk.
RAID 1 Two disks are used to store a single copy of file data in a fault-tolerant fashion. An exact copy of the data is written to each disk. If one disk fails, the other copy allows continued operation.
RAID 5 A collection of disks that combine their storage capacity by striping data and error-correcting parity information across all drives. The parity info is calculated from the data itself and can be used to identify and regenerate damaged or missing data.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) A standard reference to a collection of disks grouped to store data. The RAID level indicates the type of grouping and is indicated by a number following the term RAID.
removable disk storage A mass storage device that can be removed from the computer, either by powering down the computer first or while the computer is running. This includes floppy disks, portable hard disks, and cartridge-based disk storage.
sector A single unit of storage for a hard disk that represents the smallest block of data that can be read or written to the disk. The typical hard disk sector size is 512 bytes.
simple volume A reserved area of space on a single dynamic disk. A simple volume can be formatted with a file system. The areas of space reserved for a simple volume do not have to be contiguous on the dynamic disk.
spanned volume A reserved area of space combined from two or more dynamic disks. A spanned volume can be formatted with a file system. Files are written to each disk’s reserved area of space until that area is full.
system partition The partition or volume used to initiate the boot sequence for a computer from a hard disk. The system partition can be the same partition as the boot partition.
volume A term used to refer to a region of disk space reserved to store file data. The term is used to generically refer to both dynamic disk volumes and basic disk partitions.
x86 A generic term used to refer to computers based on Intel CPU processors. These CPUs include 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, the Pentium family and Pentium compatible processors from other companies such as AMD.
Created by: Leisac