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Dysmorphology Extrem

QuestionAnswer
Week 5 1. Arm and leg buds appear 2. Lower limb develop lags behind upper 3. End=paddle shaped hand/foot plates
Week 6 1. Rapid lengthening 2. First sign of joint development
Week 7 1. Continued growth 2. End=appearance of hand/foot bones
Week 12 1. Ossification of long bone begins 2. Hand movements begin
Landmarks 1. Axis of limbs 2. Longitudinal segments 3. Bones 4. Joints 5. Palm
Longitudinal segments 1. Rhizomelic (upper arms/thighs) 2. Mesomelic (forearms/legs) 3. Acromelic (hands/feet)
Joints 1. Hinge (knee) 2. Ball and socket (hip) 3. Compound (wrist) 4. Connective tissue (ligaments/tendon)
Planta arch 1. Pes cavus (high arch) 2. Pes planus (flat foot)
Minor variants: joints 1. Loose jointedness 2. Pes planus
Minor anomalies: joints 1. Genu varum (bowleg) 2. Genu valgum (knock-knee)
Minor variants: hands/feet 1. Single palmar crease 2. Deep plantar crease 3. Absences of flexion crease (inadequate movement of underlying joints
Minor anomalies: hands/feet 1. Clinodactyly 2. Polydactyly 3. Tapered fingers 4. Syndactyly 5. Shortened fourth metacarpal 6. Overriding toes 7. Hammertoes
Deformations: limbs 1. Tibial bowing 2. Femoral bowing 3. Tibial/femoral torsion (intoeing/outtoeing)
Disruptions 1. Amniotic bands 2. Joints (acquired and traumatic arthritis)
Dysplasias: limbs 1. Diminished muscle mass 2. Bulky firm muscles 3. Bone fragility 4. Skeletal dysplasias
Skeletal dysplasias of limbs 1. Inadequate bone growth (longitudinal shortening) 2. Bone overgrowth (exostoses)
Dysplasias: joints 1. Limited movement 2. Hypermobility 3. Dislocations 4. Enlargements
Dysplasias: hands/feet 1. Phalangeal broadening 2. Metacarpal/metatarsal hypoplasia 3. Proximally place thumb 4. Brachydactyly 5. Small hands/feet (not disproportioned)
Malformations: limbs 1. Macrosomia (Weaver) 2. Disproportionately long limbs (Marfan & Stickler) 3. Limb asymmetry (hemihypertrophy) 4. Longitudinal defects 5. Transverse defects 6. Intercalcary defects
Malformations: longitudinal defects 1. Radial aplasia 2. Tibial aplasia
Malformations: transverse defects 1. Usually some degree of hypoplasia of remaining proximal structures 2. Distal stump-rudimentary digits
Malformations: intercalcary defects 1. Proximal portion fails to develop right 2. distal structures relatively develop 3. Phocomelia 4. Total amelia
Malformations: joints 1. Joint webbing 2. Joint contractures 3. Genu varum 4. Genu valgum 5. Genu recurvatum
Malformations: hands/feet 1. Campltodactyly 2. Ulnar deviation of fingers (Freeman-Sheldon) 3. Longitudinal skeletal defects 4. Duplication of digits 5. Syndactyly 6. Polysyndactyly 7. Localized overgrowth
Malformation: longitudinal skeletal defects 1. Triphalangeal thumb 2. Ectrodatyly 3. Monodactyly
Malformation: Duplication of digits 1. Postaxial polydactyly 2. Preaxial polydactyly 3. Multiple polydactyly
malformation: localized growth 1. Macrodactyly (overgrowth of just one digit) 2. Arachnodactyly (elongated fingers) 3. Broad thumb (Rubenstein-Taybi)
Created by: kwilliams0228
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