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ELL Terminology

WGU FDA4 - FOT PCE: Diversity & Inclusion

academic competence The ability to use language to learn academic content. (Including using spoken & written English to do assignments, interact with teachers, and communicate with native-English-speaking peers.)
active listening Having students listen for specific information.
affective filter hypothesis Hypothesis that language acquisition is related directly to the student's attitude about learning. (Krashen's Theory)
BICS/CALP The distinction between conversational fluency (basic interpersonal communication skills, or BICS), and academic language (cognitive/academic language proficiency, or CALP).
bottom-up processing Moving from the physical characteristics of language (e.g., letter-sounds) that are interpreted into successively more symbolic and meaningful levels (syntax and semantics). Often contrasted with top-down processing.
buy-in Inducement of students to go along with the instructional goals of the teacher, usually fostered by helping students realize how a particular type of learning will help them.
change agents Teachers' role in advocating for the interests of the students they teach. ELL students and their families often do not have the skills or knowledge of the schooling system to make their voices heard in the school and community.
communicative competence The ability to use language to communicate orally or in writing.
comprehensible input hypothesis Hypothesis that successful acquisition of meaningful language occurs when a student is exposed to input that is just a little above the learner's present level.
contrastive analysis A systematic linguistic analysis of the structures of the learners' native and target languages. Contrastive analysis can be performed at different levels of language--sound, lexicon, grammar, meaning, and rhetoric.
error correction Using standard English to correct a learner's speech errors.
error fossilization When a learner makes the same error repeatedly, without explicit outside correction, they reach the point where they never "hear" the error. The speaker assumes his or her way of speaking is correct.
formative assessment Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching
inside-outside circle A strategy that allows students to practice speaking and listening by sharing information with a variety of partners.
interlanguage The language produced by learners in the period before they reach native-like proficiency.
intrinsic motivation Motivation that stems from one's own needs or desires, not requiring extrinsic incentives.
knowledge of students An understanding and appreciation of students' personal attributes, experiences, their cultures and communities, and how all this fits in with their learning.
language acquisition hypothesis A subconscious process in which learners develop competence by using language for "real communication." This is often contrasted with taking courses to learn language.
language learning hypothesis A conscious process in which learners develop competence through formal studying of the language, including its rules, grammar and phonetic components
learning assessment Gauging the progress of students
learning to learn Learning strategies for learning.
meaningful learning Learning based on students' experiences, interests, and goals
microskills The many small skills needed in a larger course of action.
modeling When the teacher demonstrates an activity or lesson before having students do the lesson or activity on their own
monitor hypothesis The mechanism by which second language learners process, store, and retrieve conscious language rules.
natural order hypothesis A hypothesis that students acquire grammatical structures in a predictable order, regardless of their native languages
output The speech or writing that a learner produces in a target language
reflection Evaluating information from a variety of sources and applying observations of one's own practice back into instructional planning.
role play An activity acting out situations encountered in the classroom or in everyday life, using the language that might be used in such situations
scaffolding Providing supports to help a student do a task. These supports are gradually withdrawn as the student masters the task, thus transferring more and more autonomy to the child. Strategies for scaffolding student work include modeling, questioning, giving fe
social competence The ability to use the target language appropriately in various social situations. This includes knowing the target culture well enough to appreciate subtle socio-cultural differences in social interactions.
summative assessment Measuring students' learning at the end of a lesson
think, pair, share Students: 1) think about the lesson topic; 2) pair up with partners and share according to the guidelines the teacher has provided; 3) share their discussions with the rest of the class. Each person takes a turn retelling their partners' information.
top-down processing Beginning with processing the higher symbolic and semantic level of meaning of a text and working one's way back to processing the physical characteristics of language (e.g., letter-sounds).
Created by: ccpay