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Chapter 9: Mechanism

Athletic Training exam 2

Trama physical injury or wound, produced by internal or external force
Mechanical injury results from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter
Yield point Point at which elasticity is almost exceeded is the yield point
When yield point is far exceeded mechanical failure occurs resulting in damage
Compression Force that results in tissue crush – two forces applied towards one another
Tension Force that pulls and stretches tissue
Shearing Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue
Bending Already bowed structures encounter axial loading
Torsion Loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends
Muscle Strains Stretch tear or rip to muscle or adjacent tissue
Muscle Cramps Painful involuntary skeletal muscle contraction Occurs in well-developed individuals when muscle is in shortened position Experienced at night or at rest
Muscle Guarding Following injury, muscles within an effected area contract to splint the area in an effort to minimize pain through limitation of motion Involuntary muscle contraction in response to pain following injury
Tendon Wavy parallel collagenous fibers organized in bundles
Tenosynovitis Inflammation of synovial sheath. Chronic cases result in thickening of tendon with pain and crepitus Often occurs in long flexor tendon of the digits and the biceps tendon
Atrophy Atrophy is wasting away of muscle due to immobilization, inactivity, or loss of nerve functioning
Contracture an abnormal shortening of muscle where there is a great deal of resistance to passive stretch
synovial joint characteristics hyaline or articular cartilage and a fibrous connective tissue capsule.Capsule and ligaments for support Capsule is lined with synovial membrane Hyaline cartilage Joint cavity with synovial fluid Blood and nerve supply with muscles crossing joint
Ligament Sprains Result of traumatic joint twist that causes stretching or tearing of connective tissue
Subluxations Partial dislocations causing incomplete separation of two bones Bones come back together in alignment
Dislocations High level of incidence in fingers and shoulder Occurs when at least one bone in a joint is forced out of alignment and must be manually or surgically reduced Gross deformity is typically apparent with bilateral comparison revealing asymmetry
Bursitis Sudden irritation can cause acute bursitis, while overuse and constant external compression can cause chronic bursitis
Bursa fluid filled sacs that develop in areas of friction
Capsulitis result of repeated joint trauma
Synovitis can occur acutely but will also develop following mistreatment of joint injury
Flat bones skull, ribs, scapulae
Irregular bones vertebrae and skull
Short Bones wrist and ankle
Long bones humerus, ulna, tibia, radius, fibula, femur - bones most commonly injured
Diaphysis -shaft - hollow and cylindrical - covered by compact bone - medullary cavity contains yellow marrow and lined by endosteum
Epiphysis composed of cancellous bone and has hyaline cartilage covering - provides areas for muscle attachment
Periosteum - dense, white fibrous covering which penetrates bone via Sharpey’ fibers - contains blood vessels and osteoblasts
Closed fracture there is little movement or displacement
Open fracture involve displacement of the fractured ends and breaking through the surrounding tissue
Types of fractures Greenstick Comminuted Linear Transverse Oblique Spiral Impacted Depressed
Created by: craigp
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