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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3 (Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology) Cells

Smallest living subunits of a multicellular organism, such as a human being. Cell
Made of phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins. Also called "plasma membrane" Cell membrane
Certain substances are permitted to pass through and others are not Selectively permeable
Within the cytoplasm and is bounded by a double-layered nuclear membrane; contains one or more nucleoli and the chromosomes of the cell. Nucleus
How many chromosomes does a human cell have? 46
Made up of long trheads of chromatin. Chromosomes
Watery solution of minerals, gases, organic molecules, and cell organelles that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus. Cytoplasm
Water portion of cytoplasm. Cytosol
Extensive network of membranous tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane. Endoplasmic reticulum
Very small structures made of protein and ribosomal RNA; some are found on the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum, while others float in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes
A series of flat, membranous sacs. Golgi apparatus
Oval or spherical organelles bounded by a double membrane. Mitochondria
Oxygen-requiring Aerobic
Non-oxygen-requiring Anaerobic
Single-membrane structures that contain digestive enzymes; their enzymes destroy bacteria when it's engulfed by certain white blood cells. Lysosomes
Pair of rod-shaped structures perpandicular to one another, located just outside the nucleus; they organize the spindle fibers during cell division. Centrioles
moblie threadl-like projections throughought the cell membrane. Cilia/Flagella
Folds of the cell membrane on the surface of a cell; greatly increase the surface area of the membrane and are part of the cells lining organs that absorb materials. Microvilli
Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentrationl. Diffusion
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane (water will move from an area with more water present to an area with less water). Osmosis
Molecules move through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Facilitated diffusion
Requires the energy of ATP to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration. Active transport
Requires energy: Water and dissolved materials are forced through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Filtration
White blood cell engulfing bacteria. Phagocytosis
Abbreviation fro Ribonucleic acid RNA
Abbreviation fro Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Phases of mitosis: Prophase, metaphase,anaphase, telophase
Complex process of cell division that results in the formation of egg and sperm cells. Meiosis
Egg and sperm cells. Gametes
One cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides into two identical cells. Mitosis
Cells characterized by uncontrolled cell division. Malignant
Characteristic of only malignant cells. Metastasis
________ tumors do not metastasize but remain localized in their primary site. Benign
Genetic change that brings about abnormal cell functions or responses and often leads to a series of mutations. Mutation
Environmental substances that cause mutations. Carcinogens
Half the usual number. Haploid
Usual number Diploid
Meiosis in the ovaries (women). Oogenesis
Meiosis in the testes (men). Spermatogenesis
Egg unites with the sperm in ___________. Fertilization



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