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Chapter 5


5 functions of bones Support, protection, movement, storage, and hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation in marrow cavities
Compact bone tissue Dense, smooth and homogeneous
Spongy bone tissue Needle-like bone pieces with open space
4 shapes of bones Long, short, flat and irregular
Long bones limb bones, have shaft and heads, mostly compact
Short bones generally cube-shaped, spongy bone (wrist, ankle, patella)
Flat bones thin, flat, usually curved (skull, ribs, sternum)
Irregular bones do not fit other categories (vertebrae, hip bones)
Diaphysis shaft, made of compact bone in long bone
Epiphysis ends of long bone, spongy bone covered by thin layer of compact bone
Articular cartilage covers epiphysis for smooth movement in joints
Epiphyseal line/plate bony tissue spanning epiphysis that looks different from the rest of the bone in that area used for growth lengthwise as children
Yellow marrow in the medullary cavity, fat storage
Red marrow contained in spongy bone of flat bones and epiphyses of some long bones; makes red blood cells
Osteocytes mature bone cells, bone cells are are well nourished and bone injuries heal quickly and well "better to break bone, rather than sprain"
Central system Haversian system, lengthwise central canal carrying blood vessels and nerves
Ossification process of bone formation
Osteoblasts bone forming cells
Appositional growth increase in bone diameter
Osteoclasts giant bone destroying cells activated by PTH
Bone remodeling osteoblasts and osteoclasts adjust the shape of the bone based on calcium levels in the blood (either store calcium or break down bone to put calcium in blood)
6 types of bone fractures comminuted, compression, depression, impacted, spiral, greenstick
Reduction realignment of broken bone ends
Comminuted fracture many fragments, common in elderly
Compression fracture shattered, common in porous/osteoporotic bones
Depression fracture pushed in, typical of skull fracture
Impacted fracture broken ends pushed into each other
Spiral fracture ragged ends from twisting forces, common in sports fracture
Greenstick fracture incomplete; typical in young children with soft bones
4 ways to repair fractures hematoma formation, splinting of break by fibrocartilage callus, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling in response to mechanical stress
Hematoma formation broken blood vessels fill area with blood, bone cells deprived of nutrition die
Splinting of break by fibrocartilage callus new capillaries begin growing in (granulation tissue) to the clotted blood and damaged are; dead tissue is consumed by phagocytes; fibroblasts and connective tissues forms the fibrocartilage callus that acts as a splint
Bony callus formation osteoblasts and osteoclasts move into the area and the fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced by one made of spongy bone (spongy callus)
Bony remodeling bony callus is remodeled in response to the mechanical stresses placed on it, forms a strong, permanent "patch" at fracture site.
3 parts of skull cranium, facial bones, hyoid bone
Cranium contains 8 large flat bones
Facial bones 12 are paired, 2 are single
Mandible lower jaw bone
Hyoid bone no articulation with other bones
Fetal skull large in comparison to body, contains fontanels: tissues that enable compression and growth
Vertebral column (spine) supports axial skeleton; transmits body's weight to lower limbs, encases and protects delicate spinal cord
Intervertebral disks cushion vertebrae, absorb shock, give spine flexibility
Cervical vertebrae C1-C7 (neck) C1: atlas- has no body C2: axis- has dens as pivot point
Thoracic vertebrae T1-T12 (chest)
Lumbar vertebrae L1-T12 (lower back)
3 abnormal spinal curvatures scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis
Scoliosis lateral or bends sideways
Kyphosis "humpback" exaggerated cervical curve
Lordosis "swayback" exaggerated lumbar curve
Saccrum 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae; bottom of tailbone
Bony thorax made up of sternum and ribs
Sternum breastbone
Xiphoid process breastbone must be handled with care during CPR so as not to break it
Ribs 12 pars all attaching posteriorly with vertebral column; true, false, and floating
True ribs superior 7 rib pairs
False ribs inferior 5 rib pairs
Floating ribs inferior 2 rib pairs
Bones of shoulder girdle clavicle and scapulae
Clavicle collarbone
Scapulae shoulder blades
Upper limbs are made up of Arm- humerus, Forearm- radius and ulna
Radius lateral arm bone which follows thumb, crosses
Ulna medial arm bone
Lower limbs are made up of Thigh- femur, Leg- tibia and fibula
Femur heaviest, longest, strongest bone in body
Tibia Frontal shin bone
Fibula Shorter shin bone
3 Inflammatory disorders of joints Osteoarthritis (OA),Rheumatoid arthritis, Gouty arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) degenerative "wear and tear"
Rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune related and most crippling arthritis
Gouty arthritis painful needle shaped uric acid crystals in joints
Primary curvatures curvatures present at birth- thoracic and sacral
Secondary curvatures curvatures that develop when baby holds head up and walks- cervical and lumbar
Osteoporosis chronic bone thinning disease from hormone deficiency or inactivity in elderly
Pathologic fractures spontaneous breaks, common in elderly or osteoporotic bones; can be broken by hugs or sneezing; falling can be devastating
Created by: jmb81592



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