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Ch. 9 Notes

Physiology 2420

glial cells in the CNS that provide support to neurons and are critical to the formation of the blood brain barrier astrocytes
glial cells that line the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord ependymal cells
three membranes that seperate the soft tissue of the CNS from surrounding bone; dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. meninges
outermost of the three meninges; closest to the bone dura mater
one of the three meninges; located between the dura mater and pia mater arachnoid mater
innermost of the three meninges; adjacent to the nervous tissue pia mater
the space between the pia mater and arachnoid mater, filled with cerebral spinal fluid subarachnoid space
clear, watery fluid that surrounds and protects the CNS and is similar in composition to plasma cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
physical barrier that exists between the blood and the interstitial fluid in the CNS, formed by tight junctions between endothelial cells of the cerebal capillaries blood-brain barrier
areas of the CNS consisting primarily of cell bodies, dendrites, and axon terminals of neurons; where synaptic transmission and neural integration occurs gray matter
areas of the CNS consisting primarily of myelinated axons; specialized for the rapid transmission of information over relatively long distances in the form of action potentials white matter
portion of the central nervous system that travels in the vertebral column spinal cord
a bilaterally symmetrical brain structure, with an outer cortex and inner nuclei; located below the forebrain and posterior to the brainstem cerebellum
bottom-most part of the brain that connects the forebrain and cerebellum to the spinal cord; consist of three main regions: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata brainstem
12 pairs of peripheral nerves that emanate directly from the brain cranial nerves
region of the frontal lobe where voluntary movement in initiated primary motor cortex
region of the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex specialized for the processing of somatic sensory information primary somatosensory cortex
a particular group of nuclei located deep in the cerebrum that are important in regulating voluntary movements basal nuclei
diverse collection of closely associated cortical regions, subcortical nuclei, and tracts in the forebrain; function in learning and emotions limbic system
pathway by which a stimulus reflexively induces a response reflex arc
a direct pathway from the primary motor cortex to the spinal cord; controls fine voluntary movements pyramidal tract
all motor control pathways outside the pyramidal system; controls supportive movements extrapyramidal tract
area of association cortex devoted to language expression; located in the frontal lobe Broca's area
area of association cortex devoted to language comprehension; located in the posterior and superior portion of the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal lobe Wernicke's area
protect the CNS from foreign matter, such as bacteria and remnants of dead or injured cells. microglia
a degenerative disease involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Parkinson's Disease
a disease caused by the loss of cholinergic neurons in certain brain areas and replacement of the lost neurons with scar tissue called plaques Alzheimer's Disease
An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks a part of the body, oligodendrocytes. Results from the loss of myelin in the CNS. Multiple Sclerosis
Different sensory regions on bodies surface which each serve a particular spinal nerve dermatomes
SAME DAVE Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent Dorsal Afferent Ventral Efferent
OOOTTAFVGVAH On occasion our trusty truck acts funny very good vehicle any how
What are the 12 cranial nerves in order? Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Accessory, Hypoglossal
Cranial Nerve I Olfactory
Cranial Nerve II Optic
Cranial Nerve III Oculomotor
Cranial Nerve IV Trochlear
Cranial Nerve V Trigeminal
Cranial Nerve VI Abducens
Cranial Nerve VII Facial
Cranial Nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear
Cranial Nerve IX Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve X Vagus
Cranial Nerve XI Accesory
Cranial Nerve XII Hypoglossal
Maps of the somatotopic organization of two cortical areas,motor and sensory, in which body parts are mapped onto the cortical surfaces with which they correspond homunculus
a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions. thalamus
a fatal genetic disease characterized in its early stages by the loss of motor coordination and the appearance of exaggerated involuntary jerking or twitching motions involving limbs and face Huntinton's chorea
A person having difficulty understanding language, regardless of whether the words are spoken or written has ____________. Wernicke's aphasia
A person able to comprehend language and know what they want to say but cannot say it make the correct sounds or write the correct words has _______________. Broca's Aphasia
Created by: GracieLou



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